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EARLY DAYS - COAL MINE
 
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EARLY DAYS - COAL MINE
Views: 4825 frank arrowsmith
Ancient Scottish mines
 
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Support the channel https://www.paypal.me/philippdruzhinin Ancient Scottish mines We Observe several Ancient Scottish mines , and they all have megaliths on top of the mine. They look like melted rocks. They could be megaliths of Scotland but they are completely destroyed now.
Views: 3561 Philipp Druzhinin
Exploring Two Old Mining Cabins and Mining Prospects
 
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Awesome. Beautiful. Tremendous. A rare find. Those are some of the words and phrases I'd use to describe the remote, historic miner's cabin I spent a couple days at out in the desert. While exploring the hills and mountains around the cabin, I found another historic miner's cabin as well as several small prospects and mines. Gold and silver seemed to be the commodities that were mined in the area back in the early 1900s. The cabins are definitely historic relics leftover from an almost-forgotten time in our mining history.
De Re Metallica (The  16th century book on mining, not the hibernating bear hunters)
 
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De Re Metallica by George Agricole (pen name) A 16th century text on mining and processing of ores. De Re Metallica https://archive.org/details/deremetallica50agri Geopathic Stress documentary https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Wprr9TYUwo&t=2161s
Ancient uranium mining
 
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Support the channel https://www.paypal.me/philippdruzhinin What you call a 100% percent of worlds uranium is really less than 1 % of what's left of ancient mining of 16-17 century. This video continues the topic of Ancient uranium mining and connection to the pillars of wethering and buttes. There are whole bunch of those mining sites of Atlanteans. If the giants were really large, they did large scale mining and left behind the small stuff -- for us, the small people who think they have really found something "big." So many questions about the new real science, these new things keep bumping into one another, but I think they may be all about "layers" of history. Giants, mining, flood disasters, wars (nuclear) dead giants, more mud floods, smaller giants, more layers of war and mud -- this is hard to figure out who came first, and now the petrified remains of the giants called mud fossils are sticking out everywhere. We are building with, walking on, playing around, collecting, wearing as jewelry or use as ornaments -- dead things, or rather dead humans even if they're very large. We live on an exposed petrified open graveyard of earth's human history. These people are amusements for climbing and playing on, used as weapons, doorstops, and every imaginable thing that we have harvested their remains to make use of. Kind of weird when you really think about it. Need to do lots of research on each of the studies presented in my videos. Maybe everyone together can help put the fragments of our true history together one day.
Views: 2428 Philipp Druzhinin
Gold Towns of the Wild West  Old Wild West History Documentary
 
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This cool documentary has the host mining using 19th century (1800s) mining techniques. Produced for the History Channel.
The Art of Gem Carving
 
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Since antiquity, gemstones have been engraved using the same methods. Follow the process from start to finish in this short video from the Getty Museum. Love art? Follow us on Google+ to stay in touch: http://bit.ly/gettygoogleplus Download video (ZIP files): HD 480p (MOV 29 MB) -- http://bit.ly/1T9sc6 HD 720p (MOV 55 MB) -- http://bit.ly/192JU5 iPod/iPhone (M4V 46 MB) -- http://bit.ly/14Rimq Related exhibition: http://bit.ly/AqpWV
Views: 612557 Getty Museum
Analysing probabilty to predict football results - Professor Norman Fenton
 
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Professor Norman Fenton, from the School of Electronic Engineering and Computer Science, uses techniques developed in the 18th Century by Thomas Bayes but too complicated to use back then to understand risk and probability in a surprising range of areas. Find out more about Norman's work - https://www.eecs.qmul.ac.uk/~norman/ Subscribe to the official Queen Mary, University of London channel - bringing you breakthrough research findings and enhanced student life, teaching and learning. http://www.youtube.com/QMULOfficial
Views: 22876 QMULOfficial
Duke of Bridgewater 's canal, 1950's - Film 18885
 
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Duke of Bridgewater 's canal, the first canal, by Brindley perhaps its Duke of Bridgwater inspected by a team of miners as it was owned by British Coal but flooded and abandoned. A pit head with the lift winding gear and a square brick building. This is Ellesmere pit coal mine near Manchester. The pit is now a pumping station. A close-up of a street sign which reads 'Bridgewater Road' on a brick wall. A map of the Midlands near Ellesmere while the commentary describes the 18th century Duke of Bridgewater who worked out the underwater canal system for working his coal. The road on which and then the headquarter building of the National Coal Board in Walken, it is a 19th century grand house. Three miners with helmets and Davy lamps enter a lift which a fourth operates. We see the three begin to descend in the lift cage. They are going to inspect the old canal network. Miners with lamps lit on the head descend a flight of metal stairs into a brick lined man made cavern. They step into a low flat bottomed boat, which was used by the 18th century miners. The boat enters the very low tunnel entrance. They have to lie flat, while someone else pushes the boat in - there is no engine. The edge of the boat seen going through the water. The raggy and uneven ceiling and walls of the tunnel pass over head. The miner move the boat by walking their feet on the ceiling. We see brick work arches and bare rock walls. Feet of miners in the air walking the ceiling. The inspection team of miners are Jimmy Stave and two Yugoslavian miners. They proceed through the passage. There is a marker post to show if the water level is too high or low for the boat to travel. Close-up of feet in boats and iron rings embedded in the ceiling. The canal is now used to drain off water from other colliery. A man in a helmet turns a round wheel on a series of pipes and water gushes out. A pressure gauge arrow goes up quickly. The inspection team emerges from a low tunnel in their boat at Worsley. A coal tug on the Worsley canal with NCB painted on the other side. A narrow boat in a covered dry dock. A NCB tug pulls a number of lighters near the half-timbered house in the background. The three miners climb out of their low boat and walk up the hill.
Views: 2719 HuntleyFilmArchives
Huge instruments and mining technologies. Answer to Lori Frary
 
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Huge instruments and technologies made as an answer to a question of Lori Frary Flat Earth Conspiracy channel https://youtu.be/eMrURTO1o54?t=24m30s What they used to cut the trees?
Views: 971 Philipp Druzhinin
Experiments in Ancient Brewing
 
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2017 NCECA co-lecture featuring Ben Freund & Stephen Hulbert. Experiments in Ancient Brewing is a study on ancient beer making techniques in ceramic vessels. Brewer Steve Hulbert and ceramist Ben Freund have been brewing beer in clay vessels over wood fires since 2015. They will discuss their experiments and detail what it takes to make a beer in a clay pot.
Views: 1861 WatchNCECA
wall of fades 2015
 
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An annual event for Denim Enthusiast . Presented by www.darahkubiru.com & Indonesian Denim Group WALL OF FADES 2015 The Largest Denim Exhibition In Southeast Asia Denim Exhibition - Denim Education - Curated Preium Tenant Jeans are trousers that typically made from denim accompanied with the famous 5 pockets and rivets. It is used by the sailors in the Genoese Wars. They were called genes because they came from genoa, which now are simplfied and known as jeans. While the fabric itself, denim was from France or known as serge de nimes. It has been distributed and known through out sailing from time to time. In the 18th Century, cotton is getting more popular whereas back in the days, jeans were made from various mixture between fabrics. Through the durability of cotton, the use of this fabric is getting more demanded and being dyed with indigo color which being used as the most jeans nowadays. In the 1930, jeans became more popular due to the exposure in various films in hollywood, which jeans became identical with cowboys. Furthermore, the use of jeans is being used by many historical events such as wars and sub-culture movements, from mining to the way of people express them selves. Which the impact is huge and the distribution of jeans is known globally. Wall Of Fades 2015 will show various brands around the world including the details and differences of fades. The newest exhibition strikes with the Denim Enthusiast Dictionary in order for them to know denim and jeans more. And we want to show how sub-culture and countries represent their jeans in their own ways and point of views, so people would appreciate more.
Views: 18400 Bhisma Diandra
Manganese - Video Learning - WizScience.com
 
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"Manganese" is a chemical element with symbol "Mn" and atomic number 25. It is not found as a free element in nature; it is often found in combination with iron, and in many minerals. Manganese is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels. Historically, manganese is named for various black minerals from the same region of Magnesia in Greece which gave names to similar-sounding magnesium, Mg, and magnetite, an ore of the element iron, Fe. By the mid-18th century, Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele had used pyrolusite to produce chlorine. Scheele and others were aware that pyrolusite contained a new element, but they were unable to isolate it. Johan Gottlieb Gahn was the first to isolate an impure sample of manganese metal in 1774, by reducing the dioxide with carbon. Manganese phosphating is used as a treatment for rust and corrosion prevention on steel. Depending on their oxidation state, manganese ions have various colors and are used industrially as pigments. The permanganates of alkali and alkaline earth metals are powerful oxidizers. Manganese dioxide is used as the cathode material in zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries. In biology, manganese ions function as cofactors for a large variety of enzymes with many functions. Manganese enzymes are particularly essential in detoxification of superoxide free radicals in organisms that must deal with elemental oxygen. Manganese also functions in the oxygen-evolving complex of photosynthetic plants. The element is a required trace mineral for all known living organisms but is a neurotoxin. In larger amounts, and apparently with far greater effectiveness through inhalation, it can cause a poisoning syndrome in mammals, with neurological damage which is sometimes irreversible. Wiz Science™ is "the" learning channel for children and all ages. SUBSCRIBE TODAY Disclaimer: This video is for your information only. The author or publisher does not guarantee the accuracy of the content presented in this video. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Background Music: "The Place Inside" by Silent Partner (royalty-free) from YouTube Audio Library. This video uses material/images from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manganese, which is released under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . This video is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ . To reuse/adapt the content in your own work, you must comply with the license terms.
Views: 6935 Wiz Science™
Abandoned Mine Explore #3: Brownley Hill ( Enormous Stopes !) Nenthead, England, UK
 
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Our exploration of the abandoned Brownley Hill lead mine. The following information is from mineexplorer.org : Brownley Hill mine was first worked for lead with silver being extracted as well, the earliest workings being via surface shafts on the Brownley Hill Vein. Records dated 1735 from the Greenwich Hospital indicate that the mine was of no real economic value at this time. In the middle of the 1700's the London Lead Company took out a lease for just under 20 years. They worked the Brownley Hill Vein in the Little Limestone and in the hazles above it, obtaining a considerable amount of ore, but they were prevented from mining deeper by water. To overcome the problem they drove the Brownley Hill High Level in the sills above the Great Limestone in an attempt to reach the Little Limestone gaining access to the bottom of old workings, however only a fraction of the expected ore was found. The company also tried the Brownley Hill Moss Cross Vein and Jug Vein, but due to poor ventilation they abandoned their undertakings in this area. In all, they gave up their lease before it was expired as the total current outlay on development brought forth very little in results. At the end of 1765 a new lease was taken out by two man team who obtained a very large amount of ore from the cross Veins as well as the Brownley Hill Vein. The ore raised was sold to the London Lead Company. In 1795 the lease passed to the newly formed Brownley Hill Lead Company. This was a particular lucrative time as the price of lead increased dramatically due to the wars with France. When the price declined again the lease was sold on to another group in 1816, which continued to work the mine under the same name of the Brownley Hill Lead Company. The mine now was being worked for zinc as well lead. It is during this period that the mine started to really develop. The Bloomsberry Horse Level was driven and the previously worked veins were now being worked from below. The horse level extended out on Guddamgill Cross Vein, Wellgill Cross Vein, Brownley Hill North Vein, Brownley Hill Vein eventually reaching the Brownley Hill Moss Cross and Brownley Hill High Cross Veins as well as Jug Vein. The lead ore in the lower levels were much poorer than that obtained in the higher horizons, however the grade of zinc ore was very good and this contributed to the operations profitability. Production was maintained until the middle of the 1850's. In 1869 the mine was operating under a different concern again, the Brownley Hill Lead Mining Company during this period the mine was closed for a while and then reopened again with the same workforce. In 1890 the company sold up the complete mining operation to the Nenthead and Tynedale Lead and Zinc Company who held the lease until 1894. At this time high grade lead ore was depleted and the Vieille Montagne Zinc Company took over the lease in 1914 shifting operations to the extraction of zinc ore. The mine operated until 1936. The last working of the mine was between 1964 and 1966; when the trial Slate Sill level was driven in the Slate Sills southeast of the Brownley Hill Moss Cross Vein.
Views: 13718 RGVX
Fans (1955)
 
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London. C/U of a woman in evening wear holding a large fan in front of her face. C/U of her peeking above the fan in a coy fashion. Camera pans down to show the decoration on the fan. The narrator speaks of the "language of the fan" letting us know that the particular gesture shown means "I love you". M/S and C/U of a woman sitting at a table repairing antique fans. High angle shot over her shoulder which shows her gluing part of the fan onto a wooden base. C/U of her painting glue onto the wooden slats. Narrator explains that repair techniques, pleating and shaping the wood are trade secrets. The repaired fan is opened and closed for the camera. M/S of a model in white strapless evening gown and long gloves holding her fan. She holds it in front of her face with her right hand. This means "follow me". C/U of the fan, tilt up to show woman's face. C/U of a fan made of brightly coloured feathers. Camera pans down to show the hand of the woman who is holding it (bright red nails and a lacy bodice). L/S of the woman holding the fan and looking very sexy and sultry. She holds the fan against her left ear, this means "I want to get rid of you." She lowers the fan across her body. M/S of the model in white. She holds a fan made from bright yellow South African ostrich feathers. She gently moves the fan in front of her face, sending out the signal: "wait for me". Camera pans down to show the fan. An 18th century Chinese fan with designs painted on chicken skin (!). Model signals "yes!" Another model uses a fan to send the message: "kiss me". C/U of her gently fanning her face. Camera pans down to show her hand, her pinkie is sticking out which means "goodbye". Note: nice C/Us of flirtatious women, quite sexy and sultry. Booklet on file describes the Language of the Fan also a magazine article about fans. FILM ID:27.02 A VIDEO FROM BRITISH PATHÉ. EXPLORE OUR ONLINE CHANNEL, BRITISH PATHÉ TV. IT'S FULL OF GREAT DOCUMENTARIES, FASCINATING INTERVIEWS, AND CLASSIC MOVIES. http://www.britishpathe.tv/ FOR LICENSING ENQUIRIES VISIT http://www.britishpathe.com/ British Pathé also represents the Reuters historical collection, which includes more than 120,000 items from the news agencies Gaumont Graphic (1910-1932), Empire News Bulletin (1926-1930), British Paramount (1931-1957), and Gaumont British (1934-1959), as well as Visnews content from 1957 to the end of 1979. All footage can be viewed on the British Pathé website. https://www.britishpathe.com/
Views: 1039 British Pathé
CATACOMBS PARIS EMPIRE OF DEATH FULL DOCUMENTARY 2018
 
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CATACOMBS PARIS HISTORY Paris' Cemeteries. pearliest burial grounds were to the southern outskirts of the Roman-era Left Bank city. In ruins after the Roman empire's 5th-century end and the ensuing Frankish invasions, Parisians eventually abandoned this settlement for the marshy Right Bank: from the 4th century, the first known settlement there was on higher ground around a Saint-Etienne church and burial ground (behind the present Hôtel de Ville), and urban expansion on the Right Bank began in earnest after other ecclesiastical landowners filled in the marshlands from the late 10th century. Thus, instead of burying its dead away from inhabited areas as usual, the Paris Right Bank settlement began with cemeteries near its centre. The most central of these cemeteries, a burial ground around the 5th-century Notre-Dame-des-Bois church, became the property of the Saint-Opportune parish after the original church was demolished by the 9th-century Norman invasions. When it became its own parish associated with the church of the "Saints Innocents" from 1130, this burial ground, filling the land between the present rue Saint-Denis, rue de la Ferronnerie, rue de la Lingerie and the rue Berger, had become the City's principal cemetery. By the end of the same century "Saints Innocents" was neighbour to the principal Parisian marketplace Les Halles, and already filled to overflowing. To make room for more burials, the long-dead were exhumed and their bones packed into the roofs and walls of "charnier" galleries built inside the cemetery walls. By the end of the 18th century, the central burial ground was a two metre high mound of earth filled with centuries of Parisian dead, plus the remains from the Hôtel-Dieu hospital and the Morgue; other Parisian parishes had their own burial grounds, but the conditions in Les Innocents cemetery were the worst. A series of ineffective decrees limiting the use of the cemetery did little to remedy the situation, and it was not until the late 18th century that it was decided to create three new large-scale suburban burial grounds on the outskirts of the city, and to condemn all existing parish cemeteries within city limits. The future ossuary: Paris' former mines Edit Map of former underground mine exploitations in Paris (1908). Further information: Mines of Paris Much of the Left Bank area rests upon rich Lutetian limestone deposits. This stone built much of the city, but it was extracted in suburban locations away from any habitation. Because of the post 12th-century haphazard mining technique of digging wells down to the deposit and extracting it horizontally along the vein until depletion, many of these (often illicit) mines were uncharted, and when depleted, often abandoned and forgotten. Paris had annexed its suburbs many times over the centuries, and by the 18th century many of its arrondissements (administrative districts) were or included previously mined territories. The undermined state of the Left Bank was known to architects as early as the early 17th-century construction of the Val-de-Grâce hospital (most of its building expenses were due to its foundations), but a series of mine cave-ins beginning 1774 with the collapse of a house along the "rue d'Enfer" (near today's crossing of the Avenue Denfert-Rochereau and the boulevard Saint-Michel) caused King Louis XVI to name a commission to investigate the state of the Parisian underground. This resulted in the creation of the inspection Générale des Carrières (Inspection of Mines) service. Ossuary creation Edit The need to eliminate Les Innocents gained urgency from May 31, 1780, when a basement wall in a property adjoining the cemetery collapsed under the weight of the mass grave behind it. The cemetery was closed to the public and all intra muros (Latin: "within the [city] walls"[2]) burials were forbidden after 1780. The problem of what to do with the remains crowding intra muros cemeteries was still unresolved. Mine consolidations were still occurring and the undergroun
Views: 99 THE WORLD
Places to see in ( Roussillon - France )
 
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Places to see in ( Roussillon - France ) Roussillon is a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France. Roussillon lies within the borders of the Parc Naturel Régional du Luberon. In the French natural regional parks, new economic activities may be developed only if they are sustainable. Roussillon is noted for its large ochre deposits found in the clay surrounding the village. Ochres are pigments ranging from yellow and orange to red. One of the former ochre quarries can be visited via the "Sentier des Ocres" (Ochre Path), a walk of either 30 or 60 minutes through the old workings. Roussillon stands on an ochre ridge, situated in a broad valley with the "Monts du Vaucluse" to the north and the "Petit" Luberon to the south. The nearest railway station is in Cavaillon; the nearest TGV station is in Avignon. The river Calavon forms part of the commune's southern border. Roussillon is famous for the rich deposits of ochre pigments found in the clay near the village. The large quarries of Roussillon were mined from the end of the 18th century until 1930. Thousands of people found work in the quarries and factories. Nowadays the mining of ochre is prohibited here, in order to protect the sites from degradation or even complete destruction. Because during the 18th century the demand rose for pigments to be used in the textile industry, the mining of ochres in Roussillon intensified. Numerous quarries and ochre factories, some of which can still be seen today, were situated near the village. One example of an ochre factory, the "Usine Mathieu", is named for the family that owned it from 1870 to 1901. It has been formed into a "Conservatoire": a workshop serving as a museum. The quarries and factories were established in the villages of Roussillon, Villars, Gargas, Rustrel (with its Colorado provençal) and Gignac. During the 20th century, mining techniques were modernized, which meant that more profitable ochre mines became exploitable. This resulted in a gradual closing-down of ochre mines in and around Roussillon. From the 1980s, tourism has replaced ochre industry as a source of income. ( Roussillon - France ) is well know as a tourist destination because of the variety of places you can enjoy while you are visiting the city of Roussillon . Through a series of videos we will try to show you recommended places to visit in Roussillon - France Join us for more : https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCLP2J3yzHO9rZDyzie5Y5Og http://placestoseein87.blogspot.com.eg/ https://plus.google.com/108460845579164318812 https://www.facebook.com/placestoseein87/ https://twitter.com/Placestoseein1 https://www.tumblr.com/blog/placestoseein https://www.pinterest.com/placestoseein87/places-to-see-in/
Views: 188 Places to see in
The price of gold: Chinese mining in Ghana documentary | Guardian Investigations
 
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Ghana has had a gold rush but here, Afua Hirsch discovers how Chinese immigrants are profiting from industrialising the country's small-scale mining industry. She sees for herself that, for the many locals who chance losing life and limb for a piece of the same pie, the risks are rarely worth it, and explores where the responsibility for regulating this industry lies. The price of gold: Chinese mining in Ghana documentary Subscribe to the Guardian HERE: http://bitly.com/UvkFpD Afua Hirsch reports on Ghana's gold rush in a film that discovers how Chinese immigrants are profiting from industrialising the country's small-scale mining industry. She sees for herself that, for the many locals who chance losing life and limb for a piece of the same pie, the risks are rarely worth it, and explores where the responsibility for regulating this industry lies.
Views: 2491043 The Guardian
Making an Axe from Iron Ore: Trailer for the film Ore to Axe by Ken Koons
 
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Purchase the Movie Here https://www.createspace.com/336053 Ore to Axe This documentary film details the process of smelting iron ore into metal and forging it into an eighteenth century-style axe. Follow blacksmiths with over 100 years collective experience as they demonstrate every step in the centuries-old bloomery smelting process. By combining earth, air, and fire, they create that "tool of necessity" used for generations. Blacksmiths Shelton Browder, Ken Koons, Steve Mankowski, and Lee Sauder take you on the journey of finding ore, making charcoal. building a furnace, smelting the ore to iron, converting the iron to steel, and finally forging the axe. If you have ever wondered how the tools so important to our ancestors were made, watch and see skills almost lost to history. Buy it here https://www.createspace.com/336053 Read a review here http://warehamforgeblog.blogspot.com/2012/06/ore-to-axe-review.html
Views: 123534 Handcraftedtradition
The Renaissance: Was it a Thing? - Crash Course World History #22
 
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In which John Green teaches you about the European Renaissance. European learning changed the world in the 15th and 16th century, but was it a cultural revolution, or an evolution? We'd argue that any cultural shift that occurs over a couple of hundred years isn't too overwhelming to the people who live through it. In retrospect though, the cultural bloom in Europe during this time was pretty impressive. In addition to investigating what caused the Renaissance and who benefitted from the changes that occurred, John will tell you just how the Ninja Turtles got mixed up in all this. Crash Course World History is now available on DVD! http://store.dftba.com/products/crashcourse-world-history-the-complete-series-dvd-set Follow us! @thecrashcourse @realjohngreen @raoulmeyer @crashcoursestan @saysdanica @thoughtbubbler Like us! ‪http://www.facebook.com/youtubecrashcourse Follow us again! ‪http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support CrashCourse on Patreon: http://patreon.com/crashcourse
Views: 4214786 CrashCourse
5 Most SCARY & CREEPY Places on Earth
 
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Don't even try and visit these places unless your prepared to be scared Please support Scary Mysteries! Check out our Patreon at https://www.patreon.com/scarymysteries... - There's a lot of cool access, giveaways and even a custom episode! Buy awesome original shirts made by Scary Mysteries https://newdawnfilm.com/scary-mysteri... Subscribe for Weekly Videos here: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCiE8... _________________________________________________________ 5 Most Scary & Creepy Places on Earth There are plenty of picturesque places in the world, but just as there's beauty there's also terrifying and scary. This list of places are not typical vacation destinations by any stretch and are sure to haunt anyone who visits them. These are the 5 Most Scary & Creepy Places on Earth. 5. Paris Catacombs Hailed as the "City of Lights," Paris is known the world over for its romantic allure and beautiful sights. But there’s something underneath all charm, something unlike anything else in the world that will send chills down your spine. And that’s The existence of the Paris catacombs. Even before the city came to be, Parisian underground mines and quarries were widespread. These mines were built haphazardly and were once used to quarry limestone for constructing buildings, as well as gypsum, used in "plaster of Paris." Ever since its discovery, the mines have been found to have three large networks that run underground in several districts of the city. 4. Snake Island If you're deathly afraid of snakes, there's one island you should stay away from – Ilha Queimada Grande, otherwise known as Snake Island. Located off the coast of Brazil, Snake Island was cut off from the mainland by rising sea levels during the last Ice Age. Featuring 4.6 million square feet of land, this place is mostly covered in a thick rainforest and open grasslands. The island was once inhabited. Those who occupied it attempted to create a banana plantation and used the slash and burn technique to clear out a portion of land for planting. 3. Island of the Dolls Considered a haunted island, the Island of the Dolls can be reached in a 2-hour canal drive from Mexico City. An actual floating garden, the island amps up the creepy factor with the hundreds of dolls and doll parts decorating the trees and various areas of the island. According to legend, La Isla de las Muñecas came to be because of one man, a local named Don Julian Barrera. A hermit, he lived on one of the small islands inside the Xochimilco canal system and One day, he came across a little girl that drowned under mysterious circumstances. 2. Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo Mummies aren't just found in Egypt they're also found on the beautiful island of Sicily. The city of Capuchin is located on the outskirts of Palermo; in it, is found the famously creepy Capuchin Monastery. During the 16th century, the monastery ran out of space for their cemetery and decided to excavate beneath the church. It’s there they created various crypts, which were originally designed to host the mummified bodies of dead monks. The first monk mummified and placed underneath here was Silvestro of Gubbio in 1599 while the last monk interred was Brother Ricardo in 1871. 1. Beelitz-Heilstätten Hospital, Beelitz, Germany Built in the later part of the 18th century, the Beelitz-Heilstätten Hospital otherwise known as the Beelitz Sanatorium was initially created to help rehabilitate tuberculosis patients. It was built from 1898 to 1930 under the direction of the German National Insurance Institute. They thought that the proximity of the area to the capital as well as the fresh countryside air would make the perfect location to help patients. It was built with 60 buildings consisting mostly of treatment facilities, but there was also a small village in the area along with a bakery, restaurant, butcher's post, a post office and even a power station.
Views: 89699 Scary Mysteries
Digging A Huge Old Town Bottle Dump In Canada
 
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Digging bottles and having fun with meMiner up north in Canada. Join us as we explore an old town dump and then start excavating some really interesting and old bottles. In this video I show you some of my bottle digging techniques and point out some of the signs of a good bottle dump layer. I hope you enjoy the video and don't forget to check out meMiner's videos of this awesome trip! https://www.youtube.com/user/tess99991
Views: 47920 Aquachigger
What is CALAMINE BRASS? What does CALAMINE BRASS mean? CALAMINE BRASS meaning & explanation
 
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What is CALAMINE BRASS? What does CALAMINE BRASS mean? CALAMINE BRASS meaning - CALAMINE BRASS definition - CALAMINE BRASS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Calamine brass is brass produced by a particular alloying technique using the zinc ore calamine directly, rather than first refining it to metallic zinc. Zinc smelting is difficult and the pure metal was largely unknown historically, even though the alloyed calamine brass was in use for centuries. Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc and, when it was first developed, methods for producing metallic zinc were unknown. Metallurgists wishing to produce brass thus used calamine (actually a mixture of the virtually indistinguishable zinc ores smithsonite and hemimorphite) as the zinc component of brass. The resulting brasses, produced by heating a mixture of copper and calamine to a high temperature for several hours (allowing zinc vapor to distill from the ores and permeate the metallic copper), contained a significant amount of slag material resulting from the non-zinc components of calamine. The use of ore rather than metallic zinc also made it difficult to accurately produce the desired final proportion of copper to zinc. This process is known as cementation. Calamine brass was produced using proportions of two-sevenths fine copper, four-sevenths calamine, and one-seventh shruff (old plate brass). Calamine brass was the first type of brass produced, probably starting during the 1st millennium BC, and was not replaced in Europe by other brass manufactures until the 18th century (it is likely that Indian brass manufacturers had developed more advanced techniques some centuries earlier). The area around La Calamine, now Kelmis, in Belgium, was the source of much of the medieval brass of northern Europe. Brass production was introduced to England in 1587 when several members of the Company of Mineral and Battery Works obtained a licence from the company (within whose monopoly it was) to build a brass works at Isleworth. However a decade later the company obstructed the owners from mining calamine. A plaque at Tintern Abbey claims that the well-known brassworks at this site began in 1568. New brass works were built by Jacob Momma, a German immigrant in 1649 at Esher, probably using Swedish copper. After the passing of the Mines Royal Act in 1689, further works were built near Bristol, where brass production became a major industry in the 18th century. Later brass production sites in England included Cheadle and Birmingham. Calamine brass was slowly phased out as zinc smelting techniques were developed in Europe, which produced metallic zinc more suitable for brass production than calamine. However, the conversion away from calamine brass manufacture was slow; a British patent was awarded to William Champion in 1738, but the alloying of metallic zinc and copper to produce brass was not patented until 1781 (by James Emerson), and calamine brass mills persisted in South Wales until as late as 1858. The slow diffusion of this technology was probably the result of economic factors.
Views: 77 The Audiopedia
Forehead lines reader: 18th century dating matchmaker
 
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This German forehead reader from 1785 was aimed at those looking for love and marriage. The readers interpreted the lines on the forehead in the same way that palmistry does for the hand. Based on physiognomy, it was believed to help judge aspects of someone's character, revealing a jealous person behind an attractive façade. Was this therefore an analogue dating device? Presented by Wellcome Library Engagement Officer, Danny Rees. Watch more videos in our 'Curiosities from the Collection' series: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tBqmtWHv01k&list=PLScgI9IJlBNUEDcH1GkqSXqNxfo7Zpe3d View images of the book and forehead readers (pdf): http://film.wellcome.ac.uk:15151/MaryToft/60795_A.pdf Visit the Reading Room: http://wellcomecollection.org/visit Find us on Facebook: - http://www.facebook.com/wellcomecollection Follow us on Twitter: - http://twitter.com/explorewellcome See us on Instagram: - http://instagram.com/wellcomecollection
Views: 13096 Wellcome Collection
A Brief History of Coal Mining
 
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We briefly explain the history of coal. From the cave man days, to present day. For more information on coal, and the debate of whether it is a logical energy source please visit: http://www.advantagesanddisadvantagesofcoal.com/
Views: 6569 coaldebate
History of Industrial Revolution Documentary
 
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#History Please order ebook/audiobook of this video to support our channel https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/653292, https://www.amazon.co.uk/Industrial-Revolution/dp/B01H2IY62K/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1539456244&sr=1-1&keywords=History+of+Industrial+Revolution+introbooks or https://www.audible.com/pd/Industrial-Revolution-Audiobook/B01H2IY2ME?qid=1539456255&sr=sr_1_1&ref=a_search_c3_lProduct_1_1&pf_rd_p=e81b7c27-6880-467a-b5a7-13cef5d729fe&pf_rd_r=N9EXM6CH47WJCKKPJ24B& The Industrial Revolution was the changeover to new industrial processes from somewhere in 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This evolution comprised of moving from manufacturing goods with hands to machineries, bettered efficacy of water power, manufacturing of new chemicals and producing iron through new ways, usage of steam power, the advancement of machine tools and the upsurge of the factories.
Views: 45883 Education Channel
Coal, Steam, and The Industrial Revolution: Crash Course World History #32
 
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Mongols Shirts and Crash Course Posters! http://store.dftba.com/collections/crashcourse In which John Green wraps up revolutions month with what is arguably the most revolutionary of modern revolutions, the Industrial Revolution. While very few leaders were beheaded in the course of this one, it changed the lives of more people more dramatically than any of the political revolutions we've discussed. So, why did the Industrial Revolution happen around 1750 in the United Kingdom? Coal. Easily accessible coal, it turns out. All this, plus you'll finally learn the difference between James Watt and Thomas Newcomen, and will never again be caught telling people that your blender has a 900 Newcomen motor. Crash Course World History is now available on DVD! http://store.dftba.com/products/crashcourse-world-history-the-complete-series-dvd-set Follow us! @thecrashcourse @realjohngreen @raoulmeyer @crashcoursestan @saysdanica @thoughtbubbler Like us! ‪http://www.facebook.com/youtubecrashcourse Follow us again! ‪http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support Crash Course on Patreon: http://patreon.com/crashcourse
Views: 3905632 CrashCourse
Paint (Part 1 of 2)
 
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A film tracing the development of paint from prehistoric times to the present day. Painting techniques are illustrated musically, imitations of ancient instruments for Egyptian art, pentatonic harmony for Japanese lacquer ware and an 18th Century pastiche for an elaborately decorated harpsichord. This film was used as a BBC2 Trade Test Colour film.
Views: 5240 ttf2011
Top 10 Largest Cities or Towns of Papua New Guinea
 
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Thanks for watching..... 1. Port Moresby 2. Lae 3. Arawa 4. Mount Hagen 5. Madang 6. Wewak 7. Goroka 8. Kokopo 9. Popondetta 10. Aitape Music : Yessum,Jingle Punks; YouTube Audio Library Papua New Guinea, officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia. Its capital, located along its southeastern coast, is Port Moresby. The western half of New Guinea forms the Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua. Papua New Guinea is one of the most culturally diverse countries in the world. 848 languages are listed for the country, of which 12 have no known living speakers. Most of the population of over 7 million people live in customary communities, which are as diverse as the languages. It is also one of the most rural, as only 18 per cent of its people live in urban centres. The country is one of the world's least explored, culturally and geographically, and many undiscovered species of plants and animals are thought to exist in the interior. Strong growth in Papua New Guinea's mining and resource sector has led to the country's becoming the sixth fastest-growing economy in the world as of 2011. Many people in the country live in extreme poverty when measured in terms of money, with about one-third of the population living on less than US$1.25 per day. At the local level, the majority of the population still live in strong customary societies and - while social life is overlaid with traditional religious cosmologies and modern practices, including conventional primary education - customary subsistence-based agriculture remains fundamental. These societies and clans are explicitly acknowledged within the nation's constitutional framework. The Papua New Guinea Constitution expresses the wish for "traditional villages and communities to remain as viable units of Papua New Guinean society" and for active steps to be taken in their continuing importance to local and national community life. At the national level, after being ruled by three external powers since 1884, Papua New Guinea established its sovereignty in 1975 following 70 years of Australian administration. It became a separate Commonwealth realm with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state and became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations in its own right. Agriculture was independently developed in the New Guinea highlands around 7000 BC, making it one of the few areas in the world where people independently domesticated plants. A major migration of Austronesian speaking peoples to coastal regions of New Guinea took place around 500 BC. This has been correlated with the introduction of pottery, pigs, and certain fishing techniques. More recently, in the 18th century, the sweet potato was brought to New Guinea, having been introduced to the Moluccas by Portuguese traders, who obtained it from South America. The far higher crop yields from sweet potato gardens radically transformed traditional agriculture; sweet potato largely supplanted the previous staple, taro, and gave rise to a significant increase in population in the highlands. Although headhunting and cannibalism have been practically eradicated, in the past they were practised in many parts of the country as part of rituals related to warfare and taking in enemy spirits or powers. For example, in 1901, on Goaribari Island in the Gulf of Papua, a missionary, Harry Dauncey, found 10,000 skulls in the island's Long Houses. According to the writer Marianna Torgovnick, "The most fully documented instances of cannibalism as a social institution come from New Guinea, where head-hunting and ritual cannibalism survived, in certain isolated areas, into the Fifties, Sixties, and Seventies, and still leave traces within certain social groups." Little was known in Europe about the island until the 19th century, although Portuguese and Spanish explorers, such as Dom Jorge de Meneses and Yñigo Ortiz de Retez, had encountered it as early as the 16th century. Traders from Southeast Asia had visited New Guinea beginning 5,000 years ago to collect bird of paradise plumes. The country's dual name results from its complex administrative history before independence. The word papua is derived from an old local term of uncertain origin. "New Guinea" (Nueva Guinea) was the name coined by the Spanish explorer Yñigo Ortiz de Retez. In 1545 he noted the resemblance of the people to those he had earlier seen along the Guinea coast of Africa. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papua_New_Guinea
Views: 3616 Kaushik Biswas
How Is The Metal Produced From Ore?
 
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https://goo.gl/6U6t22 - Subscribe For more Videos ! For more Health Tips | Like | Comment | Share : ▷ CONNECT with us!! #HealthDiaries ► YOUTUBE - https://goo.gl/6U6t22 ► Facebook - https://goo.gl/uTP7zG ► Twitter - https://twitter.com/JuliyaLucy ► G+ Community - https://goo.gl/AfUDpR ► Google + - https://goo.gl/3rcniv ► Visit us - http://healthaware.in/ ► Blogger - https://juliyalucy.blogspot.in/ Watch for more Health Videos: ► How To Avoid Unwanted Pregnancy Naturally: https://goo.gl/hRy93e ► Period Hacks || How To Stop Your Periods Early: https://goo.gl/dSmFgi ► Cold and Flu Home Remedies: https://goo.gl/biPp8b ► Homemade Facial Packs: https://goo.gl/NwV5zj ► How To Lose Belly Fat In 7 Days: https://goo.gl/EHN879 ► Powerfull Foods for Control #Diabetes: https://goo.gl/9SdaLY ► Natural Hand Care Tips At Home That Work: https://goo.gl/YF3Exa ► How to Tighten #SaggingBreast: https://goo.gl/ENnb6b ► Natural Face Pack For Instant Glowing Skin: https://goo.gl/gvd5mM ► Get Rid of Stretch Marks Fast & Permanently: https://goo.gl/ZVYvQZ ► Eating Bananas with Black Spots: https://goo.gl/gXuri6 ► Drink this Juice every day to Cure #Thyroid in 3 Days: https://goo.gl/L3537H ► How Garlic Improves Sexual Stamina? https://goo.gl/GNcbYU ► Benefits of using Egg Shells: https://goo.gl/hAUyUS ► Home Remedies to Gain Weight Fast: https://goo.gl/jBVVQh ► Amazing Benefits of Olive Oil for Health: https://goo.gl/R3583v ► Rapid Relief of Chest Pain (Angina): https://goo.gl/idAFZR ► Home Remedies for Joint & Arthritis Pains Relief: https://goo.gl/jRbNkh ► SHOCKING TRICKs For #Diabetes Control: https://goo.gl/ATDDsV ► Doctors Are Shocked! #Diabetics: https://goo.gl/ZeQddJ ► Home Remedies for Gastric Troubles: https://goo.gl/72VR1b ► Juice for #Diabetics Type 2: https://goo.gl/3vDMqR --------- In this way, gold the extraction of metals an introduction. Geology, ore deposits, and history of the big cottonwood mining google books result. Html url? Q webcache. From ore to steel arcelormittalcooperative extension service. It then goes through several chemical and electrical treatments to further purify the ore until you get high an is a type of rock that contains sufficient minerals with important elements including metals can be economically extracted from. This page explains the copper mining and production route from ore containing rock to a final product that is highest purity commercial metal in existence, used wide variety of applications essential modern living 18 jul 2008 iron with low greenhouse gas emissions can be performed by electrolysis. As the world's leading steel and mining company, our business operations extend from of iron ore coal to production full range processing separating valuable minerals (such as gold) rocks takes place in mill facilities, usually close possible site reduce hauling costs. Details for the extraction of aluminium, copper, 14 apr 2009the chemical transformation stages (leaching, smelting, electrowinning, etc) contribute largest component and mining least. Learn about platinum the balance. For ferrochromium, the saturation point is approximately 9 percent, but actual carbon content varies with condition of ore and composition slag. These rocks are usually found in the form of hematite (fe2o3) or magnetite (fe3o4)29 nov 2015 extracting iron from ore using a blast furnace. For example, reactive metals such as aluminium are extracted by electrolysis, while a less metal iron may be reduction with carbon or monoxide from raw material to finished product our business operations extend ore and coal mining providing full range of steel products service offerings. Production seems to have started in the copper producing regions of anatolia and persia, where use iron compounds as fluxes assist melting may accidentally ores are rocks from which metallic can be economically extracted. Coke is this section deals with the types of iron and steel which are produced as a result making process 5 oct 2017 although studied by number english, french spanish chemists in mid 18th century, francois chabaneau was first to produce pure sample platinum metal 1783. The common ores of iron are both oxides, and these can be reduced to by heating them with carbon in the form coke. Extraction of metals introduction chemguide. Howstuffworks ore to steel youtubeworld coal association. In some instances, metal production involves relatively few steps since the already occurs in an ore must be mined, or removed from ground. The extraction of iron chemistry libretexts. This page looks at the various factors which influence choice of method for extracting metals from their ores, including reduction by carbon, a reactive metal (like sodium or magnesium), and electrolysis. How is metal produced from ore? Bbc gcse bitesize methods of extr
Views: 13 Fredda Winkleman
Historic Techniques - History through Tin-Types
 
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This event took place on Thursday, September 3, 2015 at the California Historical Society. Photographer Ed Drew's first body of work involved photographing his military unit in Afghanistan in the photographic technique of wet plate tintype. Created in between the combat missions he flew on as a combat search and rescue gunner on helicopters, this collection of photographs were the first made of American soldiers in war since the Civil War. For his most recent work he was commissioned by the Klamath tribes of Oregon in conjunction with Klamath Tribal Health services, which included Modoc tribal members whom were relocated from their homelands in Tule Lake California after the Modoc War. The work speaks of a reflection of the past to show the progression of the contemporary, while redefining the tribal peoples definition of self as strong proud individuals. Ed Drew was born and raised in Brooklyn, NY and joined the military in 1999 2 days after his 18th birthday. He has served for 6 years in the active duty Air Force and transferred to the California Air National Guard where he currently serves as a Staff Sergeant and helicopter gunner on Combat Search and Rescue helicopters stationed in Moffett Field, near Mountain View, California. He is also a recent graduate of San Francisco Art Institute where he received a BFA majoring in Sculptor and minoring in Photography. He currently lives in East Bay.
Mining News, 1960's - Film 7507
 
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Piping Heat in Somerset. large lorry load of coal emptied from tipper lorry. Caretaker starts to shovel coal into coal store. New method is to pipe coal into customer's store by high pressure jet. Coupling up pipe. The lorry has a sign on side " N.C.B Coal Tanker". The pipe in operation pumping out small lumps of coal. Bulk flow lorry on the road. A lorry delivering to stately home of Clevedon Court in Somerset. The house. Nice old fireplace (ruined by small grate). Slippers on hearth. Coal pumped into coal shed. Woman accepts bill from tanker driver and walks through the door of 13th century house. People visiting house. The art gallery. Chandelier. Different rooms in house near Nailsea Moor. A display of Nailsea glass. National Trust house. Glamorgan - South Wales. "Way of Gentleness" Story of a man who plays judo. He looks at his new black belt. His young daughter sits on his knee as he reads magazine "Judo". His wife hands a kitchen drier up. They live near Porth. Man does judo training in the kitchen. He wears his judo clothes and tightens the belt. He teaches people at Porth YMCA. Line up of students bowing. He demonstrates judo throw. He receives scroll to go with his black belt. Contest between Porth and Port Talbot. Two competitors struggle. Our man wins. Demonstration whereby Gerald throws six men in quick time. Newcastle: "In spite of the weather". The Town Moor, Newcastle, ten days before the opening of the Royal Show. High winds blowing marquees about. Wrecked stands. Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother gets out of car. Dry stone walling competition. Pig show. Livestock show - sheep lined up. Cow. Hoses and pit ponies. Blacksmith demonstration and forging a horseshoe. Fitting shoe. New machinery. NCB stand promoting solid fuel heating in greenhouses. Percy Thrower in attendance. He gave advice. Poor weather - women carry umbrella
Views: 465 HuntleyFilmArchives
Bell-pit mining at Yearsley Moor
 
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Reading the landscape to discover evidence of early coal mining - a dangerous and noisy activity, and hard to imagine now amid the peaceful woods. Part of the Yearsley Moor Archaeological Project.
Boutique Big Data: Reintegrating Close and Distant Reading of 19th-Century Newspapers
 
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27-10-2015 Institute of Historical Research http://www.sas.ac.uk/ http://www.history.ac.uk/events/browse/18566 Institute: http://www.history.ac.uk Boutique Big Data: Reintegrating Close and Distant Reading of 19th-Century Newspapers Dr Melodee Beals (Loughborough University) From their earliest incarnations in the seventeenth-century, through their Georgian expansion into provincial and colonial markets and culminating in their late-Victorian transformation into New Journalism, British newspapers have relied upon scissors-and-paste journalism to meet consumer demands for the latest political intelligence and diverting content. Although this practice, wherein one newspaper extracted or wholly duplicated content from another, is well known to scholars of the periodical press, in-depth analysis of the process is hindered by the lack of formal records relating to the reprinting process. Although anecdotes abound, attributions were rarely and inconsistently given and, with no legal requirement to recompense the original author, formal records of where material was obtained were unnecessary. Even if they had existed, the number of titles that relied upon reprinted material makes systematic analysis impossible; for many periodicals, only a few issues, let alone business records, survive. However, mass digitisation of these periodicals, in both photographic and machine-readable form, offers historians a new opportunity to rediscover the mechanics of nineteenth-century reprinting. By undertaking multi-modal and multi-scale analyses of digitised periodicals, we can begin to reconstruct the precise journeys these texts took from their first appearance to their multiple ends. Moreover, by repurposing individual ‘boutique’ research outputs within large-scale textual analyses, we can greatly enhance the resolution of our computer-aided conclusions and bridge the gaps between commercial, state and private databases. This paper will explore the possibilities of large-scale reprint identification, using out-of-the-box and project-specific software, within and across digitised collections. Second, it will demonstrate the means by which reprint directionality and branching can be achieved and the relative precision of manual and computer-aided techniques. Finally, it will explore the nature of multi-scale analysis and how we might best reintegrate ‘boutique’ periodical research into large-scale text-mining projects. Digital History seminar series
Views: 105 SchAdvStudy
Root Beer Taste Off ★ A&W, Stewarts, Mug and Barqs
 
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Welcome to Thirsty Thursdays, this is a new series where I taste test and review drinks that you ask me to, so leave a suggestion about a drink you love or a drink you know exists but can't get it in your area. Ken Domik KBDProductionsTV YouTube - http://www.youtube.com/user/KBDProductionsTV Twitter - http://twitter.com/#!/@kendomik FaceBook - http://www.facebook.com/pages/KBDProductionsTV/162219386763 Google+ - https://plus.google.com/113137194334536004205/posts Instagram - http://instagram.com/kendomik tumblr - http://kendomik.tumblr.com Skype - kendomik Music by Kevin MacLeod http://incompetech.com/m/c/royalty-free/ Song: Slow Ska: ISRC: US-UAN-11-00838 Song: Peppy Pepe - ISRC: USUAN1100115 I have a Creative Commons License with Kevin MacLeod and have the rights to use the music in this video. Creative Commons License for Kevin MacLeod, Link... http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/legalcode Information from... From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Root_beer Root beer is a carbonated, sweetened beverage, originally made using the root of the sassafras plant (or the bark of a sassafras tree) as the primary flavor. Root beer, popularized in North America, comes in two forms: alcoholic and soft drink. The historical root beer was analogous to small beer in that the process provided a drink with a very low alcohol content. Although roots are used as the source of many soft drinks throughout the world, often different names are used. Ingredients There are hundreds of root beer brands in the United States, produced in every U.S. state. It is a flavor almost exclusive to North America, yet there are a few brands from other nations around the world, such as the UK, the Philippines, and Thailand where the flavor often varies considerably from the typical North American drink. There is no standardized recipe. The primary ingredient, artificial sassafras flavoring, is complemented with other flavors. Common flavorings are vanilla, wintergreen, cherry tree bark, licorice root, sarsaparilla root, nutmeg, acacia, anise, molasses, cinnamon, clove, and honey. Although most mainstream brands are caffeine-free, there are some brands and varieties that contain caffeine. Homemade root beer is usually made from concentrate, though it can also be made from actual herbs and roots. Both alcoholic and non-alcoholic root beers have a thick and foamy head when poured, often enhanced by the addition of yucca extract. The flavor varies widely between brands and methods--from insipid and insignificant to a bold, rambunctious brew which lingers in the back of the throat and pleasantly makes itself manifest even in the nasal passageways, a hallmark of only the rootiest root beers. The discontinuation of the use of sassafrass root is thought by some to make the difference here. History The custom of brewing root beer goes back to the 18th century.[citation needed] Farm owners used to brew their own (then) light-alcoholic beverage for family get-togethers and other social events. During the 19th century, some pharmacists tried to sell their version of root beer as a miracle drug. In 1876, pharmacist Charles Hires first introduced a commercial version at the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition. Hires was a teetotaler who wanted to call the beverage "root tea." However, his desire to market the product to Pennsylvania coal miners caused him to call his product "root beer" instead. By 1893, root beer was sold as a bottled soft drink to the public. Especially during Prohibition, non-alcoholic versions proved to be commercially successful. In 1960, a key ingredient (the sassafras root) came to be known as a carcinogen and its use was banned by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.[citation needed] Following this ban, companies began experimentation with artificial flavors and preparation techniques to remove the unhealthy effects of root beer while preserving its flavor.
Views: 93825 KBDProductionsTV
Amazing Indian Inventions That Changed History | Entertainment Update | Viral Mojo
 
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Watch more videos for more updates. Stay Tuned & Subscribed https://goo.gl/Vrf7gQ Amazing Indian Inventions That Changed History Indians definitely are masterminds; for, some of their inventions changed the world today Let’s have a quick look at a handful of those ancient inventions Buttons: Ornamental buttons were first used in Indus Valley Civilization and can be traced back to 5,000 years in Mohenjo-daro Shampoo: Shampoo was derived from the word ‘Champo’ , which was made from extracts of herbs Fibonacci Series and Zero: The Fibonacci sequence was described by Virahanka, Gopala and Hemachandra ‘Zero’ was invented in 500 AD by Aryabhatta Plastic Surgery: It was invented as early as 2000 BC; surgeon Sushruta contributed to this technique Ink: Carbon pigment was used as ink in India in4th Century BC It was obtained from burning substances such as tar and pitch Flush Toilets: India taught the world how to flush Flush toilet was first used in the ancient cities of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa Fiber Optics: Dr. Narendra Singh Kapany is called ‘Father of Fiber Optics’ for his pioneering work in the field Cotton: Cotton cultivation began in 5th-4th millennium BC in Indus Valley Civilization and spread to the Mediterranean Diamond Mining: India was the only source of diamond mining till 18th Century, until Brazil came up It first started in central India along the rivers of Krishna and Godavari Cataract Surgery: Physician Sushrutha performed cataract surgery by a special tool called ‘Jabamukhi Salaka’ Soon, it spread to other countries and the Greek came to India to learn it
Views: 31 VIRAL MOJO
Curious Objects: Asante Gold Weights
 
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These Curious Objects are Asante gold weights and come from 19th or 20th century Ghana. They were made of brass, but we're used to measure gold dust which was the universal currency in West Africa at the time. Weights often featured animals, fish, weapons and tools – or human figures as demonstrated here. Their significance as an art form transcends their function and reflects wider Asante spiritual beliefs and cultural practises. According to a famous Asante proverb "When a fool is squandering his gold dust, he says his scales are out of order"
18th Century America: The Colonies Mature - Liam O'Brien
 
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Instructor Liam O'Brien presents a lecture on "18th Century America: The Colonies Mature" for his History of the American People to 1865 course.
Gaia 1
 
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In the latter years of the 18th century, astronomers William and Caroline Herschel began to count stars. William called the technique 'star gauging' and his aim was to determine the shape of our Galaxy. Ever since 1609, when Galileo lifted his telescope to the misty patch of light known as the Milky Way and saw that it was composed of myriad faint stars whose light all blurred together, we have known that there are different numbers of stars in different directions throughout space. This means that our local collection of stars, the Galaxy, must have a shape to it. Herschel set out to find out what that shape was. He used a large telescope, twenty feet (610 cm) in length, mounted between tall wooden frames to sweep out a large circle in the sky that passed through the Milky Way at right angles. He then split this circle into more than 600 regions and counted or estimated the number of stars in each. With this simple technique the Herschels produced the first shape estimate for the Galaxy. Fast-forward to the 21st century and now researchers use star counts to search for hidden star clusters and satellite galaxies. They look for regions where the density of stars rises higher than expected. These patches are called stellar over-densities. Back in 1785, Herschel's circular track passed close to the brightest star in the night sky Sirius. Now, scientists mining the first data released from the ESA spacecraft Gaia have revisited that particular area of the sky and made a remarkable discovery. They have revealed a large star cluster that could have been discovered more than a century and a half ago had it not been so close to Sirius. Astronomers have been looking for star clusters and satellite galaxies in various surveys for the past decade. It was natural for them to do this with the Gaia mission's first data release. Gaia is the European Space Agency's astrometric mission. Collecting positions, brightnesses and additional information for more than a billion sources of light, its data allows nothing less than the most precise 'star gauging' ever. These days the laborious task of counting the stars is done by computers but the results still have to be scrutinised by humans. Astonomers were combing the list of over-densities when they saw the massive cluster. At first it seemed too good to be true. Bright stars can create false signals, termed artefacts, that astronomers must be careful not to mistake for stars. An early paper from the Gaia team had even discussed artefacts around Sirius using a nearby patch of sky to the one Koposov was looking at. These two objects were named: Gaia 1 for the object located near Sirius, and Gaia 2, which is close to the plane of our Galaxy, and both were duly published. Gaia 1 in particular contains enough mass to make a few thousand stars like the Sun, is located 15 thousand light years away, and spread across 30 light years. This means it is a massive star cluster. Collections of stars like Gaia 1 are called open clusters. They are families of stars that all form together and then gradually disperse around the Galaxy. Our own Sun very likely formed in an open cluster. Such assemblies can tell us about the star formation history of our Galaxy. Finding a new one that can be easily studied is already paying dividends. Identifying 41 members of the cluster, astonomerss found that Gaia 1 is unusual in at least two ways. Firstly, it is about 3 billion years old. This is odd because there are not many clusters with this age in the Milky Way. Typically clusters are either younger than a few hundred million years – these are the open clusters – or older than 10 billion years – these are a distinct class called globular clusters, which are found beyond the main bulk of stars in our Galaxy. Being of intermediate age, Gaia 1 might represent an important bridge in our understanding between the two populations. Secondly, its orbit through the galaxy is unusual. Most open clusters lie close to the plane of the Galaxy but Simpson found that Gaia 1 flies high above it before ducking down and passing underneath. About 90% of clusters never go more than a third of this distance. Simulations of clusters with orbits like Gaia 1 find that they are stripped of stars and dispersed by these high velocity 'plane passages'. That puts it at odds with the age estimate.
Views: 126 Kowch737
9 Riddles That Expose Your Mind
 
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9 Riddles That Expose Your Mind. These riddles are the perfect riddles that expose your mind. The riddles are the best tools for brain exercise but these 9 riddles are the tools to expose your mind and logic. These 9 riddles will test your logic and cleanness of your mind with 9 tricky riddles. If you are creative and you like to solve the riddles, please try to solve this riddles.These 9 mind exposing riddles are very funny, tricky and amazing riddles for all. You can play these on your school, classroom and office. ▼ SOME OF MY INTERESTING VIDEOS ▼ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ▶ 15 Brain itching IQ and Riddles With Answers https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jcKa2SYxhRQ ▶ Find Your Mental age https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0VMFR3JoPMw ▶ How good are your eyes test ! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MZ25jflS-WE ▶ Dirty mind test https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V-1hG9eSLVk ▶ Your Name is in this Puzzle https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kAizBTpA2cA ▶ FIND THE ODD ONE OUT ! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=16U1tm5CRRk Enjoy the video and subscribe EGMines for more. EGMines is full with riddles for kids, hard riddles for kids, free IQ score check with riddles, brain games and many brain exercise!! Thank you. Please keep visiting EGMines channel.
Views: 685197 EG Mines
California metal detecting
 
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California metal detecting - http://www.california-gold-rush-miner.us/ California gold detecting with the Fisher GoldBug2. Watch as the metal detectorist finds a large 4 ounce copper (looks like gold) nugget we planted in his path. The Cargo Muchacho Mountains are located in the southeast Colorado Desert in the Lower Colorado River Valley, in Imperial County, California in the United States. California metal detecting: Mexican miners worked the area for decades before Americans entered the district in the late nineteenth century. In this sense it was more characteristic of mineral regions in Arizona and New Mexico that constituted the northern edge of a Hispanic mining frontier extending north from Mexico, which had been developed in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. California metal detecting: When gold prospecting, you need good equipment to save time & help in finding gold nuggets by removing trash. Visit our site for real gold nuggets and prospecting equipment: http://www.california-gold-rush-miner.us Also, be sure to get a FREE subscription to our popular gold prospecting blog at: http://www.california-gold-rush-miner.us/california-gold-rush-miner
Views: 28665 GoldProspecter
Metal Detecting Tips: Research
 
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Taking time to research a site will pay off. Search the area on Google to see what comes up. Parish records, battle sites, mines, old maps - they can all be found on the internet. Google Earth will show up sites of old houses, footpaths, ancient water courses etc. which may be invisible from ground level. Talk to old people - they've been around a long time and will have knowledge of local history. That's helped me alot with the sites I have. Above all, use common sense. If there are modern features like a cross roads, the fields around there (assuming the roads have been used for hundreds of years) could have many finds waiting to be discovered. The shape of the land can indicate ancient farming methods also with 'rig and furrow' (undulating land caused by years of linear ploughing) showing that people have worked the land in the past, even if now, the field is just pasture. Thanks to the lads in the Blayon Search and Recovery Association for teaching me so much in the short time I have been a member.
Views: 18381 Pondguru
Authenticity in Museum Education
 
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Accessing authentically produced objects for education programs represents an ongoing challenge for Sydney Living Museums. So, when the education team realised that the wooden buckets at Elizabeth Farm needed replacing the hunt was on to get some new ones – but where do you go? And how do you make a bucket? Thankfully, a bit of research put us onto George Smithwick – a sixth generation cooper who makes buckets and is continuing a family tradition that began in the 18th century in Ireland. Edward Washington and James Murray from the Programs team flew down to catch up with George to see if he could help with our dilemma and he was happy to show us how he worked; using tools, techniques and practises that have remained the same for hundreds of years. George also let us into what was once a very tight-knit and sometimes secretive coopering industry – and we captured it all on camera.
Columbus, de Gama, and Zheng He! 15th Century Mariners. Crash Course: World History #21
 
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In which John Green teaches you about the beginning of the so-called Age of Discovery. You've probably heard of Christopher Columbus, who "discovered" America in 1492, but what about Vasco da Gama? How about Zheng He? Columbus gets a bad rap from many modern historians, but it turns out he was pretty important as far as the history of the world goes. That said, he wasn't the only pioneer plying the seas in the 1400s. In Portugal, Vasco da Gama was busy integrating Europe into the Indian Ocean Trade by sailing around Africa. Chinese admiral Zheng He was also traveling far and wide in the largest wooden ships ever built. Columbus, whether portrayed as hero or villain, is usually credited as the great sailor of the 15th century, but he definitely wasn't the only contender. What better way to settle this question than with a knock-down, drag-out, no holds barred, old-fashioned battle royal? We were going to make it a cage match, but welding is EXPENSIVE. Resources: The Age of Reconnaissance by JH Parry - An explanation of the technologies that made these voyages possible, and a nice detailed record of many of the important voyages. http://dft.ba/-discovery When China Ruled the Sea by Louise Levathes: A history of the Ming dynasty's ventures into maritime exploration. http://dft.ba/-zhenghedragon Unknown Seas by Ronald Watkins: A highly readable account of Vasco da Gama's introduction of europe into the Indian Ocean trade. http://dft.ba/-vasco Crash Course World History is now available on DVD! http://store.dftba.com/products/crashcourse-world-history-the-complete-series-dvd-set Follow us! @thecrashcourse @realjohngreen @raoulmeyer @crashcoursestan @saysdanica @thoughtbubbler Like us! ‪http://www.facebook.com/youtubecrashcourse Follow us again! ‪http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com Support CrashCourse on Patreon: http://patreon.com/crashcourse
Views: 2712896 CrashCourse
COMBAT DIVER BUOYANCY CONTROL
 
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Combat diver history - In ancient Roman and Greek times, etc., there were instances of men swimming or diving for combat, sometimes using a hollow plant stem or a long bone as a snorkel. Diving with snorkel is mentioned by Aristotle (4th century BC). The earliest descriptions of frogmen in war are found in Thukydides' History of the Peloponnesian War. The first instance was in 425 BC, when the Athenian fleet besieged the Spartans on the small island of Sphacteria. The Spartans managed to get supplies from the mainland by underwater swimmers towing submerged sacks with supplies. In another incident of the same war, in 415 BC, the Athenians used combat divers in the port of Syracuse, Sicily. The Syracuseans had planted vertical wooden poles in the bottom around their port, to prevent the Athenian triremes from entering. The poles were submerged, not visible above the sea level. The Athenians used various means to cut these obstacles, including divers with saws. It is believed that the underwater sawing required snorkels for breathing and diving weights to keep the divers stable. The Hungarian Chronicon Pictum claims that Henry III's 1052 invasion of Hungary was defeated by a skillful diver who sabotaged Henry's supply fleet. The unexpected sinking of the ships is confirmed by German chronicles. Italy started World War II with a commando frogman force already trained. Britain, Germany, the United States, and the Soviet Union started commando frogman forces during World War II. First frogmen The word frogman appeared first in the stage name The Fearless Frogman of Paul Boyton, who since the 1870s broke records in long distance swimming to demonstrate a new invented rubber immersion suit, with an inflated hood shaped like a frog. As a stunt show hero in that suit he played a military diver (attaching mines to ships etc.) long before such divers existed. The first modern frogmen were the World War II Italian commando frogmen, of Decima Flottiglia MAS (now "ComSubIn": Comando Raggruppamento Subacquei e Incursori Teseo Tesei) which formed in 1938 and was first in action in 1940. Originally these divers were called "Uomini Gamma" because they were members of the top secret special unit called "Gruppo Gamma", which originated from the kind of Pirelli rubber skin-suit nicknamed muta gamma used by these divers. Later they were nicknamed "Uomini Rana", Italian for "frog men", because of an underwater swimming frog kick style, similar to that of frogs, or because their fins looked like frog's feet. This special corps used an early oxygen rebreather scuba set, the Auto Respiratore ad Ossigeno (A.R.O), a development of the Dräger oxygen self-contained breathing apparatus designed for the mining industry and of the Davis Submerged Escape Apparatus made by Siebe, Gorman & Co and by Bergomi, designed for escaping from sunken submarines. This was used from about 1920 for spearfishing by Italian sport divers, modified and adapted by the Italian navy engineers for safe underwater use and built by Pirelli and SALVAS from about 1933, and so became a precursor of the modern diving rebreather. For this new way of underwater diving, the Italian frogmen trained in La Spezia, Liguria, using the newly available Genoese free diving spearfishing equipment; diving mask, snorkel, swimfins, and rubber dry suit, the first specially made diving watch (the luminescent Panerai), and the new A.R.O. scuba unit. This was a revolutionary alternative way to dive, and the start of the transition from the usual heavy underwater diving equipment of the hard hat divers which had been in general use since the 18th century, to self-contained divers, free of being tethered by an air line and rope connection.
Views: 729 Legends Of The Deep
Most RECENT Archaeological Discoveries In ANCIENT EGYPT!
 
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Check out the Most RECENT Archaeological Discoveries In ANCIENT EGYPT! This top 10 list of mysterious findings and unbelievable discoveries has some of the most amazing artifacts and architecture in ancient egypt! Subscribe For New Videos! http://goo.gl/UIzLeB Watch our "REAL Mermaid Sightings Around The World!" video here: https://youtu.be/ChM0CBRmVsM Watch our "10 Sea Monsters ATTACKING A Boat!" video here: https://youtu.be/0XROvoPCDNc Watch our "STRANGEST Animals People Keep As Pets!" video here: https://youtu.be/OMa96nPqz-Y 9. Egypt’s Most Influential Pharaoh Last year, in 2017, National Geographic reported that archaeologists from Egypt and Germany had discovered a huge eight-metre statue submerged in ground water in Cairo. The statue at first was believed to depict Pharaoh Ramses II, who ruled Egypt over 3,000 years ago and was one of the country’s most powerful leaders. 8. Elite Tombs in Luxor The discovery of two ancient tombs in the southern city of Luxor surprised the world and brought new buzz to Egypt in 2017. Located in the the Draa Abul Naga necropolis, this area is famous for its temples and burial grounds. It is close to the Valley of the Kings where many of ancient Egypt's pharaohs were buried. 7. A Nubian King In 2008, the remains of a mysterious 2,600-year-old statue were discovered in a temple at Dangeil, along the Nile River in Sudan. However, archeologists found only parts of the statue, which meant they could not identify who it was until years later. The temple where the remains were found are believed to have once been dedicated to the Egyptian Amun. 6. The Ankhesenpepi Pyramid Archaeologists have discovered the first evidence of a long-lost satellite pyramid for the ancient Egyptian Queen Ankhesenpepi II. She was considered the most important Egyptian queen of the 6th Dynasty around 2,350 BC. She and her sister Ankhesenpepi I were both married to Pharaoh Pepi I. While the names might seem like a huge coincidence, it is most likely that they both took on the same name when they married. 5. Remains of a Musician In Timna, Israel, archaeologists discovered the mysterious remains of a pregnant woman from 3,200 years ago. This biblical-era site supposedly never had any female visitors and during the time of her the place was controlled by Egypt. This discovery last year challenged the historical understanding of experts. 4. The Statue of Ptah In 2014, archaeologists discovered a pit full of ancient goodies! Among them, a statue of the Egyptian Ptah, alongside a beautiful carved cat, a sphinx, and a Baboon. Ptah was the of craftsmen and sculptors and was worshipped in a temple at Karnak. 3. Tutankhamen’s Camping Bed When famous archaeologist Howard Carter discovered King Tut’s tomb in 1922, he also discovered some furniture in his treasury. While this might not sound that exciting compared to everything that was found, it definitely deserves its own mention. 2. A Hidden Chamber After years of analysis and exploration, researchers believed they had uncovered every secret hidden inside the pyramid of Giza, however in 2017 a new chamber was revealed! This 4500-year-old monument and wonder of the world has much more to share. Researchers used muon detectors, the by-product of cosmic rays to reveal the unidentified chamber. 1. The Two Brothers In 1907, the findings of two mystery mummies left researchers perplexed for decades, but now, thanks to DNA sequencing, scientist have finally solved the mystery!! The pair’s burial site was discovered in, a village 250 miles south of Cairo. They were found by Egyptian workmen directed Origins Explained is the place to be to find all the answers to your questions, from mysterious events and unsolved mysteries to everything there is to know about the world and its amazing animals!
Views: 171936 Origins Explained
Top ten inventions in India that you may not know
 
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Top ten inventions in India that you know not know. 1.Buttons:- Buttons were first used for the ornamental purposes rather than for fastening. They were first used in the Indus valley civilization. 2. Chess:- Chess developed out of Chaturanga, which is an ancient strategy based game developed during the Gupta empire in India around 6th century AD. 3. Prefabricated and movable Structures:- In 16th century, during the reign of Akbar, the first prefabricated and movable structures were invented. 4. Ruler:- Ruler were first used in the Indus valley civilization , made of Ivory. 5. Shampoo:- The word 'Shampoo' is derived from Champo. It was initially used as a head massage oil. It evolved into shampoo over the years. 6. Snake and Ladder:- The game, Snake and Ladder was invented in India, as a game of morals. It was used in teaching students moral instructions. 7. Decimal system and Quadratic formula:- A mathematician named Brahmagupta found the first general formula for solving quadratic equation. The decimal system was developed in India between the 1st and 6th centuries. It is also called as Hindu-Arabic number system as it was introduced to Europeans by Arab. 8. Suits game:- Popular game of cards originated from India and was known as Krida Patram. 9:- Cataract surgery:- Indian physician Sushrutha has the knowledge of performing cataract surgery. It spread to China from India. Greek scientists would visit India to get operations done and also to learn. 10. Diamonds:- world wide, India was the only source of diamonds until the discovery of mines in Brazil in 18th century. Almost 5000 years ago, diamonds were first recognized and mined in India. All i ask is like the video and subscribe to my channel if you feel the video interesting. Find the links of the Same kind: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DEc-V57CneY&t=2s https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FSeuoJYGvc4 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=idlnTWErBII https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JcVxsfZ_HqQ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rBUgTe5rZtI
Views: 482 Poorna Chandra N
[Techno Blog] 10 Historic Photos You’ve Probably Never Seen!
 
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10 Historic Photos You’ve Probably Never Seen! 10. The Punt Gun Used in late 19th and early 20th Century, this mechanized shot gun with devastating rounds was probably sufficient to scare an enemy into a quick submission. Equipped with an intimidating looks and high explosive power, these weapons of gore however saw no significant grim battle. 9. The Elephant-Mounted Machine Gun Animals played a vital role in the World Wars and they are one of man’s most venerated friend. To tame these monsters, we had to venture past our fear of gore to transform an elephant into a death merchant. In this publicity snap taken in 1914, an American corporal is seen aiming his M1895Colt-Browning machine gun atop an elephant. 8. A Soldier On A Mountain Of Shells World War I is one the most vicious battle ever fought in history of humanity. What started as a normal outing for Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife, an erroneous turn by the driver and sheer coincidence of stumbling upon Gavrilo Princip on a street corner led to the fatal assassination that ultimately sparked a series of events that subsequently led to the outbreak of the war. 7. The Football Helmet Test Prior to the age of computer simulators, men had to test things they way they saw fit. In this hilariously-brutal yet justified photo snapped in 1912. An unnamed man is seen ramming head first into a wooden structure to test the strength of the primitive helmets. Prior to the helmets, the late 18th and early 19th Century players protected their ears and head using leather straps lased with cotton. 6. Atabrine Promotional Post When fear of death and insecurity combine on hysterical masses, few unscrupulous business-minded men are bound to whistle all the way to the bank. In this historical photo of killing two birds with a single stone, two human skulls are used as both fear and marketing technique. From this grim photo that violates the dead, an anti malarial (Atabrine) is advertised in a draconian and carefree fashion. What haunts most is the poster in question was strategically placed in 363rd Station Hospital. 5. The Rat Catchers You’ve all heard of rat-catchers. A group of penniless and despised citizens employed to chase and kill rats in a bid to tame their sporadic sprouting across the cities. Still reeling in shock and frenzy of the black and bubonic plague, authorities went to extreme lengths to keep them ‘’death merchants’’ under wraps. These rodent-timers spent hours toiling in the belly of the earth; sewers and cellars as mice shun open areas. 4. The Unpleased German Crewman In this photo that sums the rascal natures of combat, a German U-boat crewman is seen totally unpleased with the state of affairs. As a crew of the dreaded U-boat, the patrol took weeks or months. During those ‘’red-set-tape’’ period in the belly of the mechanized death machines, they had to be on guard against enemy submarines as well as spy radars, all while avoiding catastrophic collision with mines in addition to watching the skies for bombers. 3. George Blind While most of us would freeze at the sight of a gun, George Blind was a different one altogether. Equipped with nerves of steel, George took the bull by the horn by literally smiling on the face of his supposed executioners. After being arrested on suspicion of being a French partisan; accusations that didn’t seat well with the third Reich, he was promptly whisked to interrogation chambers but amazingly failed to crack. 2. NASA Board Of Calculations NASA is one of worlds most advanced space program where photos from space voyagers are analyzed by bored scientists before released to the uneducated eyes who marvel at the complexity and immensity of our universe. However, the pre-computer NASA was a different one. Complex spacecraft trajectories, navigation and orbits of spacecrafts were often calculated on the board and this notable photo snapped in their offices attest to that. 1. Titanic Funeral Mass We all know Titanic was one of the most luxurious ship made in the early 1900’s. Needless to say, the operators swiftly criss-crossed the ship and right away branded her ‘’unsinkable’’. To the masses, she was a dream come true. However, we know nothing goes according to plan when you poke your proverbial middle finger in the face of doom and nature taught us the hard way. Web : http://www.technoblogguru.blogspot.com https://technoblogvideo.blogspot.com Twitter : https://twitter.com/Techblogvideos Google + : https://plus.google.com/u/0/+TechnoBlogGuru Facebook : https://www.facebook.com/technoblogguru/
Views: 739 Techno Blog
23. England, Britain, and the World: Economic Development, 1660-1720
 
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Early Modern England: Politics, Religion, and Society under the Tudors and Stuarts (HIST 251) Professor Wrightson discusses the remarkable growth of the British economy in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. He examines the changed context of stable population and prices; regional agricultural specialization; urbanization; the expansion of overseas trade both with traditional European trading partners and with the Americas and the East; the growth of manufacturing industries which served both domestic and overseas markets, and the intensification of internal trade. He describes and explains the emergence of an increasingly closely articulated national market economy, closely linked to a nascent world economy in which Britain now played a core role. 00:00 - Chapter 1. The Economy in the Late Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth Centuries 01:16 - Chapter 2. Economic Growth 08:36 - Chapter 3. Agriculture and Polycentric Urbanism 17:06 - Chapter 4. Commerce 30:46 - Chapter 5. Industrial Agglomeration Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://open.yale.edu/courses This course was recorded in Fall 2009.
Views: 26006 YaleCourses
Sourdough Bread Starter A Simple homemade sourdough starter for baking sourdough bread.
 
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Sourdough bread is one of those things anyone can bake, but almost nobody ever tries, because they mistakenly think baking bread is hard. It isnt! For thousands of years, by some accounts, more than 5,000, the leavening of bread and fermentation of alcoholic beverages, like beer has been accomplished through time and patience with a little help from some voracious little microbes. Fast forward several millennia to the 1800’s and we have the California gold rush and the mining boom. It is during this time that we have acquired the image of “Sourdough Sam” the gold prospector, carrying a little leather pouch of old dough from the last batch of bread, next to his skin in a little leather pouch, to have a ready sample of gooey yeast for raising his bread or other baked goods. Doesn’t that sound appetizing? Through the ages, the entire process was thought of to varying degrees as divinely inspired, or magical. Nobody knew how it happened to make the bread rise, just that it did, and bread was better because of it. Mention sourdough bread to people, and most of us will immediately respond with images of a San Franciscan “Sourdough Sam” type of bread. Equally adored and reviled depending on whom you speak with, this overly “tart and tangy” version of wild yeast leavening has become ubiquitous with the word sourdough. This is unfortunate in my opinion. The word “sourdough” is itself the cause of the problem. The very word makes you think “sour”. Which is a misnomer. The word was accurate “back in the day” when the San Francisco version of bread leavening derived from miners carrying around a small portion of dough in a leather sack, next to their skin, which they would use to leaven their baked goods when they got back to camp. When modern yeast became prevalent and profitable, bakers and bakeries slowly adopted the “newly” discovered magical bread bug, and eventually gave up the time-honored tradition of slow leavened bread and baked goods. At first it was hailed as a miracle of modern ingenuity and innovation, but, overtime people began to look at their square, plastic wrapped bread and realized… something was missing. Like, taste, perhaps? People started to wonder what happened to the bread that grandma made when they were young, and they swear tasted so amazing, it still made their mouth water just thinking about it, decades later. Some enterprising people began investigating what happened, and it really wasn’t long to discover what had almost been forgotten, almost lost to history was how to make bread with patience, and natural leavening. Naturally leavened bread, or what has become to be called sourdough baking and bread baking specifically has gone through a dramatic reawakening in recent years, the word artisan has become almost commonplace. But, for all that, the driving technique that is making this all possible, is natural yeast leavening. Wild Yeast… or sourdough starter. Please help us feed the hungry, homeless and less fortunate by becoming a Patreon sponsor. Even a dollar or two per episode or per month will make an incredible difference to desperately hungry people in the southeastern Michigan area. Patreon: http://patreon.com/bhartisanbakery/ Links to materials found in this episode: Cambro clear 12 qt. round container - http://amzn.to/2A7XlyN Don’t forget to get a lid for the Cambro! Cuisinart CSB-77MC Mixing/Measuring Cup, 16 oz. http://amzn.to/2jw3rOA Pyrex Prepware 2-Cup Measuring Cup, Red Graphics, Clear http://amzn.to/2z7VLvh ThermoPro TP03A Digital Food Cooking Thermometer Instant Read http://amzn.to/2Ac6GVY Ozeri Pronto Digital Multifunction Kitchen and Food Scale, Elegant Black http://amzn.to/2jTzEjm ThermoPro TP03A Digital Food Cooking Thermometer Instant Read http://amzn.to/2Ac6GVY ThermoPro TP20 Wireless Remote Digital Cooking Food Meat Thermometer with Dual Probe for Smoker Grill BBQ Thermometer http://amzn.to/2jrTaDn Silpat AE420295-07 Premium Non-Stick Silicone Baking Mat, Half Sheet Size, 11-5/8" x 16-1/2" http://amzn.to/2jU6T5P Wilton 2105-459 Excelle Elite 3-Tier Cooling Rack, 15 7/8" X 9 7/8" http://amzn.to/2jTFQHT Ironland Heat Resistant Oven Gloves, Hot Surface Handler Oven Mitts, White, 2-Pack (1 Pair) http://amzn.to/2jTc0n5 King Arthur Flour 100% Organic Unbleached All-Purpose Flour, 5 Pound http://amzn.to/2j0otpa Contact us: Please help us feed the hungry, homeless and less fortunate by becoming a Patreon sponsor. Even a dollar or two per episode or per month will make an incredible difference to desperately hungry people in the southeastern Michigan area. Patreon: http://patreon.com/bhartisanbakery/ You can also follow us on these sites, drop by and say hello! Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/bhartisanbakery/ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/bhartisanbakery/ Blog: https://bhartisanbakery.wordpress.com/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/BH_ArtisanBaker Musical Segments Provided by YouTube & EpidemicSound
Views: 3310 B&H Artisan Bakery

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