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Advanced Cryptography: 1. Ciphers and Fundamentals
 
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Details at: http://asecuritysite.com/subjects/chapter34
Views: 2602 Bill Buchanan OBE
A Messy State of the Union: Taming the Composite State Machines of TLS
 
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A Messy State of the Union: Taming the Composite State Machines of TLS Karthikeyan Bhargavan Presented at the 2015 IEEE Symposium on Security & Privacy May 18--20, 2015 San Jose, CA http://www.ieee-security.org/TC/SP2015/ ABSTRACT Implementations of the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol must handle a variety of protocol versions and extensions, authentication modes, and key exchange methods. Confusingly, each combination may prescribe a different message sequence between the client and the server. We address the problem of designing a robust composite state machine that correctly multiplexes between these different protocol modes. We systematically test popular open-source TLS implementations for state machine bugs and discover several critical security vulnerabilities that have lain hidden in these libraries for years, and have now finally been patched due to our disclosures. Several of these vulnerabilities, including the recently publicized FREAK flaw, enable a network attacker to break into TLS connections between authenticated clients and servers. We argue that state machine bugs stem from incorrect compositions of individually correct state machines. We present the first verified implementation of a composite TLS state machine in C that can be embedded into OpenSSL and accounts for all its supported cipher suites. Our attacks expose the need for the formal verification of core components in cryptographic protocol libraries, our implementation demonstrates that such mechanized proofs are within reach, even for mainstream TLS implementations.
Crypto Defenses for Real-World System Threats - Kenn White - Ann Arbor
 
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Modern encryption techniques provide several important security properties, well known to most practitioners. Or are they? What are in fact the guarantees of, say, HTTPS TLS cipher suites using authenticated encryption, IPSec vs. SSL VPNs, Property Preserving Encryption, or token vaults? We live in an era of embedded Hardware Security Modules that cost less than $1 in volume, and countless options now exist for encrypting streaming network data, files, volumes, and even entire databases. Let's take a deep dive into the edge of developed practice to discuss real-world threat scenarios to public cloud and IoT data, and look closely at how we can address specific technical risks with our current encryption toolkits. Advanced math not required. Bio: Kenneth White is a security researcher whose work focuses on networks and global systems. He is co-director of the Open Crypto Audit Project (OCAP), currently managing a large-scale audit of OpenSSL on behalf of the Linux Foundation's Core Infrastructure Initiative. Previously, White was Principal Scientist at Washington DC-based Social & Scientific Systems where he led the engineering team that designed and ran global operations and security for the largest clinical trial network in the world, with research centers in over 100 countries. White co-founded CBX Group which provides security services to major organizations including World Health, UNICEF, Doctors without Borders, the US State Department, and BAO Systems. Together with Matthew Green, White co-founded the TrueCrypt audit project, a community-driven initiative to conduct the first comprehensive cryptanalysis and public security audit of the widely used TrueCrypt encryption software. White holds a Masters from Harvard and is a PhD candidate in neuroscience and cognitive science, with applied research in real-time classification and machine learning. His work on network security and forensics and been cited by media including the Wall Street Journal, Forbes, Reuters, Wired and Nature. White is a technical reviewer for the Software Engineering Institute, and publishes and speaks frequently on computational modeling, security engineering, and trust. He tweets @kennwhite.
Views: 833 Duo Security
What is PUBLIC-KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY? What does PUBLIC-KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY mean?
 
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What is PUBLIC-KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY? What does PUBLIC-KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY mean? PUBLIC-KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY meaning - PUBLIC-KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY definition - PUBLIC-KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Public-key cryptography, or asymmetric cryptography, is any cryptographic system that uses pairs of keys: public keys that may be disseminated widely paired with private keys which are known only to the owner. There are two functions that can be achieved: using a public key to authenticate that a message originated with a holder of the paired private key; or encrypting a message with a public key to ensure that only the holder of the paired private key can decrypt it. In a public-key encryption system, any person can encrypt a message using the public key of the receiver, but such a message can be decrypted only with the receiver's private key. For this to work it must be computationally easy for a user to generate a public and private key-pair to be used for encryption and decryption. The strength of a public-key cryptography system relies on the degree of difficulty (computational impracticality) for a properly generated private key to be determined from its corresponding public key. Security then depends only on keeping the private key private, and the public key may be published without compromising security. Public-key cryptography systems often rely on cryptographic algorithms based on mathematical problems that currently admit no efficient solution—particularly those inherent in certain integer factorization, discrete logarithm, and elliptic curve relationships. Public key algorithms, unlike symmetric key algorithms, do not require a secure channel for the initial exchange of one (or more) secret keys between the parties. Because of the computational complexity of asymmetric encryption, it is usually used only for small blocks of data, typically the transfer of a symmetric encryption key (e.g. a session key). This symmetric key is then used to encrypt the rest of the potentially long message sequence. The symmetric encryption/decryption is based on simpler algorithms and is much faster. Message authentication involves hashing the message to produce a "digest," and encrypting the digest with the private key to produce a digital signature. Thereafter anyone can verify this signature by (1) computing the hash of the message, (2) decrypting the signature with the signer's public key, and (3) comparing the computed digest with the decrypted digest. Equality between the digests confirms the message is unmodified since it was signed, and that the signer, and no one else, intentionally performed the signature operation — presuming the signer's private key has remained secret. The security of such procedure depends on a hash algorithm of such quality that it is computationally impossible to alter or find a substitute message that produces the same digest - but studies have shown that even with the MD5 and SHA-1 algorithms, producing an altered or substitute message is not impossible. The current hashing standard for encryption is SHA-2. The message itself can also be used in place of the digest. Public-key algorithms are fundamental security ingredients in cryptosystems, applications and protocols. They underpin various Internet standards, such as Transport Layer Security (TLS), S/MIME, PGP, and GPG. Some public key algorithms provide key distribution and secrecy (e.g., Diffie–Hellman key exchange), some provide digital signatures (e.g., Digital Signature Algorithm), and some provide both (e.g., RSA). Public-key cryptography finds application in, among others, the information technology security discipline, information security. Information security (IS) is concerned with all aspects of protecting electronic information assets against security threats. Public-key cryptography is used as a method of assuring the confidentiality, authenticity and non-repudiability of electronic communications and data storage.
Views: 719 The Audiopedia
MULTIMEDIA ENCRYPTION BASED ON JOINT SCRAMBLING AND COMPRESSION
 
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VEL TECH MULTI TECH DR.RANGARAJAN DR.SAKUNTHALA ENGINEERING COLLEGE DEPT OF ECE ABSTRACT: We propose a multimedia Encryption based on joint scrambling and compression. Video encryption is known as video scrambling. Multimedia encryption changes the multimedia data stream for secret transmission of video data between client and server. A Video Encryption technique is applied by selecting one out of multiple unitary transforms according to the encryption key generated from random permutation method at the transformation stage. Scrambling is the simplest form of encryption that can be applied to multimedia data. A common theme in real-time image/video processing systems is how to deal with their vast amounts of data and computations. For example, a typical digital video camera capturing VGA resolution, quality, color video (640 × 480) at 30fps outputs 27 million pixels per second. If we consider a gray scale image, each pixel is represented by 8bits and so we need a bandwidth of 216 Mbps to transmit VGA-resolution video. Therefore, video compression is frequently used to decrease the amount of data transmitted over a channel. Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is one of the techniques used in compressing video.JPEG image compression standard use DCT (DISCRETE COSINE TRANSFORM). The discrete cosine transform is a fast transform. It is a widely used and robust method for image compression. It has excellent compaction for highly correlated data. DCT has fixed basis images DCT gives good compromise between information packing ability and computational complexity. A.ANITHA(VM5888),D.ILAKIYA(VM6623),M.PRIYADHARSHINI(VM5995)
Views: 171 Anitha Anbu
Stream Ciphers
 
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Cryptography and Network Security by Prof. D. Mukhopadhyay, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, IIT Kharagpur. For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in
Views: 6929 nptelhrd
#5 computer security techniques, continued + cryptography primitives
 
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- surveillance - choke point - need to know - don't do crypto yourself Cryptographic primitives - hash functions and their basic properties - pseudo-random number generators - determinism - period - entropy - /dev/random vs /dev/urandom
Views: 267 ralienpp
Chapter 2, part 6: Crypto Basics --- crypto history, Claude Shannon
 
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Information Security: Principles and Practice, 2nd edition, by Mark Stamp Chapter 2: Crypto Basics Section 2.4 crypto history, Claude Shannon Class Lecture, 2011
Views: 3301 Mark Stamp
Complex One-Time Pad
 
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http://demonstrations.wolfram.com/ComplexOneTimePad/ The Wolfram Demonstrations Project contains thousands of free interactive visualizations, with new entries added daily. This Demonstration presents very simple but probably unbreakable code. The key, consisting of random complex numbers, is added and subtracted from the message without "XORing". Any Unicode-supported language can be used. Contributed by: Rudolf Muradian
Views: 595 wolframmathematica
Hackerzvoice NDH2k14 Talks : Renaud LIFCHITZ "A Common weakness in RSA Signatures"
 
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This talk will show a very common weakness in RSA signatures. We will be able to computationally extract public RSA keys from communications and embedded systems in case the public key is voluntarily not published. This weakens RSA signatures where keys of small sizes and/or quality are used and allows direct factoring attacks. 2 studies will be conducted on PGP/GPG e-mails and on the Vigik access control system which protects access to nearly 1 million buildings in France. Bio: Renaud Lifchitz is a French senior IT security consultant. He has a solid penetration testing, training and research background. His main interests are protocol security (authentication, cryptography, protocol security, information leakage, zero-knowledge proof, RFID security) and number theory. He currently mostly works on wireless protocols and was speaker for the following international conferences: CCC 2010 (Germany), Hackito Ergo Sum 2010 & 2012 (France), DeepSec 2012 (Austria), Shakacon 2012 (USA), 8dot8 2013 (Chile)
Views: 1317 communication HZV
RSA Algorithm concept and Example
 
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Enroll to Full Course: https://goo.gl/liK0Oq Networks#4: The video explains the RSA Algorithm (public key encryption) Concept and Example along with the steps to generate the public and private keys. The video also provides a simple example on how to calculate the keys and how to encrypt and decrypt the messages. For more, visit http://www.EngineeringMentor.com. FaceBook: https://www.facebook.com/EngineeringMentor. Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/Engi_Mentor
Views: 156768 Skill Gurukul
TORDES: A new Symetric Key Algorithm
 
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Tordes is a block cipher algorithm (bhushan et al., 2012) .It is unique independent approach which uses several computational steps along with string of operators with randomized delimiter selections by using some suitable mathematical logic. It is specially designed to produce different cipher texts by applying same key on same plain text. It is one of the best performing partial symmetric key algorithms particularly for the text message with limited size in its class.It also protects the cipher text from attacks because it is fully dependent on the key and code cannot be deciphered by applying all possible combinations of keys. The following information invariably used in TORDES For encryption Techniques. 1) Key Values 2) Code sequence string generated from a particular process. 3) Transformation of string. 4) Mirror image of string. This shows that the security of text data is not only depends upon key value. This really increases the security of text file.
Views: 128 Ajay Bhushan
What Is The Beast Attack?
 
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The impact of the beast attack to ssl and tls blog advantio. Beast? Webopedia definition what is ssl beast? definition webopedia term s ssl_beast. Googleusercontent search. A diversion beast attack on tls ssl encryption a few attacks part 1 checkmate nii consulting. Unless mitigated by the client and or server. Contribute to beast poc development by creating an account on github transport layer security (tls) and its predecessor, secure sockets (ssl), both the attack breaks all block ciphers (cbc ciphers) used in ssl 3. Luxsci recommends to use tls v1. Beast vulnerability radware. Beast is tool that exploits a vulnerability in the widely used version 1. In this article we will explore the beast attack as well two other 8 jan 2017 are radware adcs (appdirector and alteon) vulnerable to (browser exploit against ssl tls) attacks? A is a client side 4 jul 2012 ok, surely not freshest topic out there looking at going back end of 2011 but issue does, however, remain valid 6 oct in wake diginotar comprise comes beast, latest on tls protocol specifically 3. Short for browser exploit against ssl tls, beast is an first, revealed in late september 2011, that leverages weaknesses cipher block chaining (cbc) to the secure sockets layer (ssl) protocol 14 oct 2013 this article, i would like pin down what crime attacks and are how protect these create a safe 10 sep yesterday changed labs rating criteria stop penalizing sites do not implement server side mitigations attack 21 may 2012 earlier month, our friends at trustworthy internet movement launched new dashboard called 'ssl pulse'. Beast? Webopedia definition. Beast cryptographic attack mitigations overturned. Recently, i was working on a security implementation for system that didn't support tls 1. An illustrated guide to the beast attack command line fanaticbeast vs youtube. Qualys, inc what you need to know about beast the akamai blog. See #web 21 sep 2011 rc4 is now weak and should not be used anymore, even as a work around to the beast attack. Poc of beast attack against ssl tls. Update 9 22 11 it appears that openssl may have actually written a patch for the problem i 2 dec 2013 attack targeted sensitive data being transmitted in responses. Ssl tls information disclosure (beast) vulnerability knowledge beast attack on ssl explained slideshare. Protocols which are immune to the beast attack. What is ssl beast? Webopedia definitioncrime attack infosec resources institute. 1 ''24 aug 201321 sep 2011 a diversion beast attack on tls ssl encryption. This blog is intended to give a more realistic overview of 30 jan 2014 an illustrated guide the beast attack. And What is ssl beast? Webopedia definitioncrime attack infosec resources institute. Beast attacking ssl tls entrust, inc github mpgn beast poc of attack against tlsis really broken by the attack? What is real. It also covers the beast attack on cipher block chaining and 16 sep 2013 cryptographic attack, once thought to be largely mitigated, has two thi
Views: 155 Til Til
2011 Killian Lecture: Ronald L. Rivest, "The Growth of Cryptography"
 
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Lecture title: "The Growth of Cryptography" Ronald L. Rivest, a professor of electrical engineering and computer science who helped develop one of the world's most widely used Internet security systems, was MIT’s James R. Killian, Jr. Faculty Achievement Award winner for 2010–2011. Rivest, the Andrew and Erna Viterbi professor in MIT's Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, is known for his pioneering work in the field of cryptography, computer, and network security. February 8, 2011 Huntington Hall (10-250)
Palestra sobre Goldwasser e Micali - UFRJ (11/13)
 
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Palestra sobre as contribuições científicas de Shafi Goldwasser e Silvio Micali, ganhadores do Prêmio Turing 2012 (entregue em março de 2013), realizada na UFRJ em 28/11/2013.
Cryptography
 
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Cryptography is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties . More generally, it is about constructing and analyzing protocols that overcome the influence of adversaries and which are related to various aspects in information security such as data confidentiality, data integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation. Modern cryptography intersects the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, and electrical engineering. Applications of cryptography include ATM cards, computer passwords, and electronic commerce. This video targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 216 encyclopediacc
Faculty Forum Online: Ron Rivest
 
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Known best for his research in cryptography, computer and network security, electronic voting, and algorithms, Institute Professor Ron Rivest joined the MIT faculty in 1974.
Apple - WWDC 2014
 
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Watch as Apple previews iOS 8 and OS X Yosemite — all-new and more powerful than ever versions of the operating systems for iPhone, iPad, and Mac — at WWDC 2014. http://www.apple.com/?cid=www-us-yt-wwdc2
Views: 2191510 Apple
EMCS Info Session 051916
 
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On Thursday, April 14, 2016, Ronald Rivest spoke as the third speaker in the 2016 Cybersecurity Speaker Series. Rivest, Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT, gave an overview of the growth of cryptography, including some of the now "historical" aspects he was involved in such as RSA, MD5, and RC4.
IEEE 2016 VLSI LOW COST HIGH PERFORMANCE VLSI ARCHITECTURE FOR MONTGOMERY MODULAR MULTIPLICATION
 
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