This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:
00:01:19 1 History
00:05:52 2 Criteria
00:08:00 3 Origin
00:11:50 4 Importance in animals
00:12:51 4.1 Effect of circadian disruption
00:13:35 4.2 Effect of light–dark cycle
00:15:02 4.3 Arctic animals
00:16:06 4.4 Butterfly and moth
00:16:43 5 In plants
00:20:58 6 In iDrosophila/i
00:23:05 7 In mammals
00:25:04 7.1 Humans
00:25:57 7.2 Biological markers and effects
00:28:40 7.3 Outside the "master clock"
00:29:42 8 Light and the biological clock
00:30:13 9 Enforced longer cycles
00:31:03 10 Human health
00:31:59 10.1 Indoor lighting
00:32:33 10.2 Obesity and diabetes
00:33:31 10.3 Airline pilots and cabin crew
00:34:08 10.4 Disruption
00:35:15 10.5 Effect of drugs
00:36:40 11 Society and culture
Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago.
Learning by listening is a great way to:
- increases imagination and understanding
- improves your listening skills
- improves your own spoken accent
- learn while on the move
- reduce eye strain
Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone.
You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at:
You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through:
"The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing."
A circadian rhythm () is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours. These 24-hour rhythms are driven by a circadian clock, and they have been widely observed in plants, animals, fungi, and cyanobacteria.The term circadian comes from the Latin circa, meaning "around" (or "approximately"), and diēm, meaning "day". The formal study of biological temporal rhythms, such as daily, tidal, weekly, seasonal, and annual rhythms, is called chronobiology. Processes with 24-hour oscillations are more generally called diurnal rhythms; strictly speaking, they should not be called circadian rhythms unless their endogenous nature is confirmed.Although circadian rhythms are endogenous ("built-in", self-sustained), they are adjusted (entrained) to the local environment by external cues called zeitgebers (from German, "time giver"), which include light, temperature and redox cycles. In medical science, an abnormal circadian rhythm in humans is known as circadian rhythm disorder.In 2017, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael W. Young "for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm" in fruit flies.