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Quantum Cryptography Explained
 
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This episode is brought to you by Squarespace: http://www.squarespace.com/physicsgirl With recent high-profile security decryption cases, encryption is more important than ever. Much of your browser usage and your smartphone data is encrypted. But what does that process actually entail? And when computers get smarter and faster due to advances in quantum physics, how will encryption keep up? http://physicsgirl.org/ ‪http://twitter.com/thephysicsgirl ‪http://facebook.com/thephysicsgirl ‪http://instagram.com/thephysicsgirl http://physicsgirl.org/ Help us translate our videos! http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs_panel?c=UC7DdEm33SyaTDtWYGO2CwdA&tab=2 Creator/Editor: Dianna Cowern Writer: Sophia Chen Animator: Kyle Norby Special thanks to Nathan Lysne Source: http://gva.noekeon.org/QCandSKD/QCand... http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/n... https://epic.org/crypto/export_contro... http://fas.org/irp/offdocs/eo_crypt_9... Music: APM and YouTube
Views: 261422 Physics Girl
Will Quantum Computers break encryption?
 
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How do you secure messages over the internet? How do quantum computers break it? How do you fix it? Why don't you watch the video to find out? Why does this description have so many questions? Why are you still reading? What is the meaning of life? Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/frameofessence Twitter: https://twitter.com/frameofessence YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/user/frameofessence CLARIFICATIONS: You don't actually need a quantum computer to do quantum-safe encryption. As briefly mentioned at 7:04 , there are encryption schemes that can be run on regular computers that can't be broken by quantum computers. CORRECTIONS: [2:18] Technically, you can use any key to encrypt or decrypt whatever you want. But there's a specific way to use them that's useful, which is what's shown in the video. [5:36] In RSA, depending on exactly what you mean by "private key", neither key is actually derivable from the other. When they are created, they are generated together from a common base (not just the public key from the private key). But typically, the file that stores the "private key" actually contains a bit more information than just the private key. For example, in PKCS #1 RSA private key format ( https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3447#appendix-A.1.2 ), the file technically contains the entire public key too. So in short, you technically can't get the public key from the private key or vice versa, but the file that contains the private key can hold more than just the private key alone, making it possible to retrieve the public key from it. Video links: Encryption and HUGE numbers - Numberphile https://youtu.be/M7kEpw1tn50 The No Cloning Theorem - minutephysics https://youtu.be/owPC60Ue0BE Quantum Entanglement & Spooky Action at a Distance - Veritasium https://youtu.be/ZuvK-od647c Sources: Quantum Computing for Computer Scientists http://books.google.ca/books/about/Quantum_Computing_for_Computer_Scientist.html?id=eTT0FsHA5DAC Random person talking about Quantum MITM attacks http://crypto.stackexchange.com/questions/2719/is-quantum-key-distribution-safe-against-mitm-attacks-too The Ekert Protocol (i.e. E91) http://www.ux1.eiu.edu/~nilic/Nina's-article.pdf Annealing vs. Universal Quantum Computers https://medium.com/quantum-bits/what-s-the-difference-between-quantum-annealing-and-universal-gate-quantum-computers-c5e5099175a1 Images, Documents, and Screenshots: Post-Quantum Cryptography initiatives http://csrc.nist.gov/groups/ST/post-quantum-crypto/cfp-announce-dec2016.html http://pqcrypto.eu.org/docs/initial-recommendations.pdf Internet map (Carna Botnet) http://census2012.sourceforge.net/ Quantum network maps https://www.slideshare.net/ADVAOpticalNetworking/how-to-quantumsecure-optical-networks http://www.secoqc.net/html/press/pressmedia.html IBM Quantum http://research.ibm.com/ibm-q/ Music: YouTube audio library: Blue Skies Incompetech: Jay Jay Pamgaea The House of Leaves Premium Beat: Cutting Edge Technology Second Time Around Swoosh 1 sound effect came from here: http://soundbible.com/682-Swoosh-1.html ...and is under this license: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/sampling+/1.0/
Views: 471968 Frame of Essence
Asymmetric encryption - Simply explained
 
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How does public-key cryptography work? What is a private key and a public key? Why is asymmetric encryption different from symmetric encryption? I'll explain all of these in plain English! 🐦 Follow me on Twitter: https://twitter.com/savjee ✏️ Check out my blog: https://www.savjee.be 👍🏻 Like my Facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/savjee
Public Key Cryptography - Computerphile
 
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Spies used to meet in the park to exchange code words, now things have moved on - Robert Miles explains the principle of Public/Private Key Cryptography note1: Yes, it should have been 'Obi Wan' not 'Obi One' :) note2: The string of 'garbage' text in the two examples should have been different to illustrate more clearly that there are two different systems in use. http://www.facebook.com/computerphile https://twitter.com/computer_phile This video was filmed and edited by Sean Riley. Computer Science at the University of Nottingham: http://bit.ly/nottscomputer Computerphile is a sister project to Brady Haran's Numberphile. See the full list of Brady's video projects at: http://bit.ly/bradychannels
Views: 400067 Computerphile
Elliptic Curve and Quantum Cryptography - CompTIA Security+ SY0-401: 6.1
 
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Security+ Training Course Index: http://professormesser.link/sy0401 Professor Messer’s Course Notes: http://professormesser.link/sy0401cn Frequently Asked Questions: http://professormesser.link/faq - - - - - The creation and use of cryptography has also included new ways to keep our data private. In this video, you’ll learn about the use of elliptic curves to create encryption keys and how quantum cryptography can be used for spy-proof secure channels. - - - - - Download entire video course: http://professormesser.link/401adyt Get the course on MP3 audio: http://professormesser.link/401vdyt Subscribe to get the latest videos: http://professormesser.link/yt Calendar of live events: http://www.professormesser.com/calendar/ FOLLOW PROFESSOR MESSER: Professor Messer official website: http://www.professormesser.com/ Twitter: http://www.professormesser.com/twitter Facebook: http://www.professormesser.com/facebook Instagram: http://www.professormesser.com/instagram Google +: http://www.professormesser.com/googleplus
Views: 22560 Professor Messer
Public key cryptography - Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange (full version)
 
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The history behind public key cryptography & the Diffie-Hellman key exchange algorithm. We also have a video on RSA here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wXB-V_Keiu8
Views: 594362 Art of the Problem
Proving Security - Applied Cryptography
 
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This video is part of an online course, Applied Cryptography. Check out the course here: https://www.udacity.com/course/cs387.
Views: 5172 Udacity
NIST Calls Development of Quantum Proof Encryption Algorithms
 
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#United States' National Institute of Standards and #Technology "With the public's participation," #NIST's Cryptographic Technology Group says in a blog post (https://goo.gl/DZRVhS), "NIST intends to spend the next few years gathering, testing and ultimately recommending new algorithms that would be less susceptible to a quantum computer's attack." The development of "new public-key cryptography standards will specify one or more additional unclassified, publicly disclosed digital signature, public-key encryption, and key establishment algorithms that are capable of protecting sensitive government information well into the foreseeable future, including after the advent of quantum computers," the agency says (https://goo.gl/8rnFmH). -------------------------------------- You can see the playlist: - Breaking news: https://goo.gl/wyqG6i - Life skills: https://goo.gl/UoRrct - SE Optimization: https://goo.gl/XDkc17 *Website: http://ictblogs.net/ *Facebook: http://facebook.com/vnwpages/ *Twitter: https://twitter.com/ictblogsnet
Views: 259 ICT Blog's
What is POST-QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY? What does POST-QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY mean?
 
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What is POST-QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY? What does POST-QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY mean? POST-QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY meaning - POST-QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY definition - POST-QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Post-quantum cryptography refers to cryptographic algorithms (usually public-key algorithms) that are thought to be secure against an attack by a quantum computer. This is not true for the most popular public-key algorithms, which can be efficiently broken by a sufficiently large quantum computer. The problem with the currently popular algorithms is that their security relies on one of three hard mathematical problems: the integer factorization problem, the discrete logarithm problem or the elliptic-curve discrete logarithm problem. All of these problems can be easily solved on a sufficiently powerful quantum computer running Shor's algorithm. Even though current, publicly known, experimental quantum computers are too small to attack any real cryptographic algorithm, many cryptographers are designing new algorithms to prepare for a time when quantum computing becomes a threat. This work has gained greater attention from academics and industry through the PQCrypto conference series since 2006 and more recently by several workshops on Quantum Safe Cryptography hosted by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) and the Institute for Quantum Computing. In contrast to the threat quantum computing poses to current public-key algorithms, most current symmetric cryptographic algorithms and hash functions are considered to be relatively secure against attacks by quantum computers. While the quantum Grover's algorithm does speed up attacks against symmetric ciphers, doubling the key size can effectively block these attacks. Thus post-quantum symmetric cryptography does not need to differ significantly from current symmetric cryptography.
Views: 139 The Audiopedia
The BB84 Protocol
 
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A short video attempting to explain the Bennett & Brassard quantum cryptography protocol. I've omitted any mention of the particular details of quantum physics that would be involved in actual real-world implementations, such as particle polarization axes, spin, and so forth, instead replacing them with abstract "processes" and freakish mysterious "machines". The physical details (interesting though they are) are not needed to understand the basics of the protocol, and I'm no physicist, so I'd probably mess them up if I tried (assuming I haven't already!). Making these images has increased my affection for Microsoft PowerPoint, and putting them all into a video has hugely exacerbated my hatred for Windows Movie Maker. NOTE: An important missing piece of information: When Alice sends qubits to Bob, she chooses between process A and process B randomly for each qubit. NOTE 2: The following video explains BB84 as well, and gives more detail regarding the physics details: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7SMcf1MdOaQ NOTE 3: Here is another very interesting video about quantum cryptography. Any given real-world implementation, despite using the BB84 protocol, is bound to expose weaknesses that can be exploited. For example: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T0WnUlF2eAo
Views: 42831 Creature Mann
Post Quantum Cryptography - Cryptographic Challenge
 
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Post Quantum Cryptography - Cryptographic Challenge Crypto Challenge Homepage http://automatski.com/crypto
Bitcoin Q&A: Public keys vs. addresses
 
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What is the difference between public keys and addresses? How are new addresses generated? How are change addresses generated? Why have two outputs? Do you still pay fees if you are sending bitcoin to new addresses in your own wallet? What is the VanityGen command? What does the SIG_HASH flag do? More from 'Mastering Bitcoin': https://github.com/bitcoinbook/bitcoinbook/blob/f8b883dcd4e3d1b9adf40fed59b7e898fbd9241f/ch04.asciidoc These questions are from the MOOC 9.3 and 9.5 sessions which took place on March 2nd and March 16th, 2018 respectively. Andreas is a teaching fellow with the University of Nicosia. The first course in their Master of Science in Digital Currency degree, DFIN-511: Introduction to Digital Currencies, is offered for free as an open enrollment MOOC course to anyone interested in learning about the fundamental principles. If you want early-access to talks and a chance to participate in the monthly live Q&As with Andreas, become a patron: https://www.patreon.com/aantonop RELATED: Advanced Bitcoin Scripting Part 1: Transactions and Multi-sig - https://youtu.be/8FeAXjkmDcQ Advanced Bitcoin Scripting Part 2: SegWit, Consensus, and Trustware - https://youtu.be/pQbeBduVQ4I Reusing addresses - https://youtu.be/4A3urPFkx8g Airdrop coins and privacy implications - https://youtu.be/JHRnqJJ0rhc Wealth distribution statistics - https://youtu.be/X2Qsz4eaSPY Mixing services - https://youtu.be/rKoMvOH4zoY How do mnemonic seeds work? - https://youtu.be/wWCIQFNf_8g Using paper wallets - https://youtu.be/cKehFazo8Pw What is Segregated Witness? - https://youtu.be/dtOjjB4mD8k Spam transactions and Child Pays For Parent (CPFP) - https://youtu.be/t3c0E4fkSNs Andreas M. Antonopoulos is a technologist and serial entrepreneur who has become one of the most well-known and respected figures in bitcoin. Follow on Twitter: @aantonop https://twitter.com/aantonop Website: https://antonopoulos.com/ He is the author of two books: “Mastering Bitcoin,” published by O’Reilly Media and considered the best technical guide to bitcoin; “The Internet of Money,” a book about why bitcoin matters. THE INTERNET OF MONEY, v1: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Internet-Money-collection-Andreas-Antonopoulos/dp/1537000454/ref=asap_bc?ie=UTF8 [NEW] THE INTERNET OF MONEY, v2: https://www.amazon.com/Internet-Money-Andreas-M-Antonopoulos/dp/194791006X/ref=asap_bc?ie=UTF8 MASTERING BITCOIN: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Mastering-Bitcoin-Unlocking-Digital-Cryptocurrencies/dp/1449374042 [NEW] MASTERING BITCOIN, 2nd Edition: https://www.amazon.com/Mastering-Bitcoin-Programming-Open-Blockchain/dp/1491954388 Subscribe to the channel to learn more about Bitcoin & open blockchains! Music: "Unbounded" by Orfan (https://www.facebook.com/Orfan/) Outro Graphics: Phneep (http://www.phneep.com/) Outro Art: Rock Barcellos (http://www.rockincomics.com.br/)
Views: 10024 aantonop
Bitcoin Q&A: What is a private key?
 
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What is a private key? How are they generated and formatted? Are private keys transmitted when you make a transaction? What are the chances of collision? Will quantum computing making it easy to guess private keys? Does implementing quantum-proof algorithms require an overhaul of the code? Learn more from the following chapters of 'Mastering Bitcoin': https://github.com/bitcoinbook/bitcoinbook/blob/f8b883dcd4e3d1b9adf40fed59b7e898fbd9241f/ch04.asciidoc https://github.com/bitcoinbook/bitcoinbook/blob/f8b883dcd4e3d1b9adf40fed59b7e898fbd9241f/ch05.asciidoc Key to address code: https://github.com/bitcoinbook/bitcoinbook/blob/35f1c62f192dd0eaf1b1c462f88a46e0f5942e16/code/key-to-address-ecc-example.py These questions are from the MOOC 9.3 and 9.4 sessions, as well as the (rescheduled) April Patreon Q&A session, which took place on March 2nd, March 9th, and May 5th 2018 respectively. Andreas is a teaching fellow with the University of Nicosia. The first course in their Master of Science in Digital Currency degree, DFIN-511: Introduction to Digital Currencies, is offered for free as an open enrollment MOOC course to anyone interested in learning about the fundamental principles. If you want early-access to talks and a chance to participate in the monthly live Q&As with Andreas, become a patron: https://www.patreon.com/aantonop RELATED: Bitcoin: Where the Laws of Mathematics Prevail - https://youtu.be/HaJ1hvon0E0 Advanced Bitcoin Scripting Part 1: Transactions & Multisig - https://youtu.be/8FeAXjkmDcQ Advanced Bitcoin Scripting Part 2: SegWit, Consensus, and Trustware - https://youtu.be/pQbeBduVQ4I Cryptographic primitives - https://youtu.be/RIckQ6RBt5E Nonces, mining, and quantum computing - https://youtu.be/d4xXJh677J0 Public keys vs. addresses - https://youtu.be/8es3qQWkEiU Re-using addresses - https://youtu.be/4A3urPFkx8g What happens to our bitcoins during a hard fork? - https://youtu.be/sNR76fWd7-0 How do mnemonic seeds work? - https://youtu.be/wWCIQFNf_8g Multi-signature and distributed storage - https://youtu.be/cAP2u6w_1-k What is Segregated Witness? - https://youtu.be/dtOjjB4mD8k SegWit and fork research - https://youtu.be/OorLoi01KEE Forkology: A Study of Forks for Newbies - https://youtu.be/rpeceXY1QBM MimbleWimble and Schnorr signatures - https://youtu.be/qloq75ekxv0 Protocol development security - https://youtu.be/4fsL5XWsTJ4 Migrating to post-quantum cryptography - https://youtu.be/dkXKpMku5QY Andreas M. Antonopoulos is a technologist and serial entrepreneur who has become one of the most well-known and respected figures in bitcoin. Follow on Twitter: @aantonop https://twitter.com/aantonop Website: https://antonopoulos.com/ He is the author of two books: “Mastering Bitcoin,” published by O’Reilly Media and considered the best technical guide to bitcoin; “The Internet of Money,” a book about why bitcoin matters. THE INTERNET OF MONEY, v1: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Internet-Money-collection-Andreas-Antonopoulos/dp/1537000454/ref=asap_bc?ie=UTF8 [NEW] THE INTERNET OF MONEY, v2: https://www.amazon.com/Internet-Money-Andreas-M-Antonopoulos/dp/194791006X/ref=asap_bc?ie=UTF8 MASTERING BITCOIN: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Mastering-Bitcoin-Unlocking-Digital-Cryptocurrencies/dp/1449374042 [NEW] MASTERING BITCOIN, 2nd Edition: https://www.amazon.com/Mastering-Bitcoin-Programming-Open-Blockchain/dp/1491954388 Translations of MASTERING BITCOIN: https://bitcoinbook.info/translations-of-mastering-bitcoin/ Subscribe to the channel to learn more about Bitcoin & open blockchains! Music: "Unbounded" by Orfan (https://www.facebook.com/Orfan/) Outro Graphics: Phneep (http://www.phneep.com/) Outro Art: Rock Barcellos (http://www.rockincomics.com.br/)
Views: 7353 aantonop
IOTA tutorial 6: Why you should not reuse an address for outgoing transactions
 
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If you like this video and want to support me, go this page for my donation crypto addresses: https://www.youtube.com/c/mobilefish/about This is part 6 of the IOTA tutorial. In this video series different topics will be explained which will help you to understand IOTA. It is recommended to watch each video sequentially as I may refer to certain IOTA topics explained earlier. Digital signatures are used for authentication, integrity checking and non-repudiation.  Development of quantum computers threatens the security of currently used digital signature algorithms such as Rivest–Shamir–Adleman (RSA) and Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA). Cryptographers developed a variety of quantum-resistant alternatives of which hash based signatures are the most promising. Hash based signatures are based on so called One Time Signatures (OTS). The term implies that a single public/private key pair must only be used once. Otherwise, an attacker is able to reveal more parts of the private key and spoof signatures. In 1979 Leslie Lamport created a method to construct digital signatures using only cryptographically secure one way hash functions. This method is called the Lamport signature or Lamport One Time Signature (OTS) scheme. Other One Time Signature schemes are the Merkle OTS and Winternitz OTS. The Lamport One Time Signature scheme is very easy to understand and is VERY LOOSELY comparable to Winternitz OTS. For simplicity's sake I will be using the Lamport One Time Signature scheme explaining why you should never reuse an IOTA address for outgoing transactions. Alice uses a random number generator and produces two pairs of 256 random numbers, total 512 numbers. Each random number is 256 bits in size. These random numbers forms the private key. Each of the 512 random numbers are separately hashed, using for example SHA-256. These hashed random numbers forms the public key. Alice has a document (or transaction data) which is hashed using SHA-256. The document hash is of course 256 bits long: 101..011 Alice wants to create a digital signature for her document. She applies the following procedure: - Loop thru each bit (n) of the hash from 0-255. - If the bit is a 0, publish the nth number from pair 0. - If the bit is a 1, publish the nth number from pair 1. - When all bits are looped, destroy all unused numbers from pair 0 and 1. This produces a sequence of 256 random numbers. The digital signature is a sequence of 256 random numbers. After the digital signature is created, delete all unused numbers from the private key. The digital signature consist half of the private key, the other 256 random numbers are still unknown and thus nobody can create signatures that fit other message hashes. Alice sends her document, together with the corresponding digital signature and public key to Bob. Bob wants to verify Alice's document signature. He first hashes the document using SHA-256. The document hash is again: 101..011 Bob follows the same steps when Alice created the digital signature, but instead uses the public key. Bob produces a sequence of 256 hashes picked from Alice's public key. Bob now hashes each of the random number in the digital signature. If both sequence of hash numbers match then the signature is ok. The Lamport signature creates a digital signature which reveals part of the private key. The private key has 512 numbers and using it once will reveal 256 numbers. Using the private key twice weakens the security of the scheme again by half. The probability of an attacker being able to successfully forge a signature for a given message increases from 1/(2^256) to 1/(2^128). A third signature using the same key would increase the probability of a successful forgery to 1/(2^64) and a fourth signature to 1/(2^32), and so on. Please note IOTA's signature scheme is based on the Winternitz One Time Signature (WOTS) scheme and is NOT the same as the Lamport signature scheme. However by using the Lamport One Time Signature scheme I am trying to give you a very simplistic understanding why you should never reuse an IOTA address for outgoing transactions. Check out all my other IOTA tutorial videos: https://goo.gl/aNHf1y Subscribe to my YouTube channel: https://goo.gl/61NFzK The presentation used in this video tutorial can be found at: https://www.mobilefish.com/developer/iota/iota_quickguide_tutorial.html #mobilefish #howto #iota
Views: 5118 Mobilefish.com
What is QUANTUM KEY DISTRIBUTION? What does QUANTUM KEY DISTRIBUTION mean?
 
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What is QUANTUM KEY DISTRIBUTION? What does QUANTUM KEY DISTRIBUTION mean? QUANTUM KEY DISTRIBUTION meaning - QUANTUM KEY DISTRIBUTION definition - QUANTUM KEY DISTRIBUTION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ Quantum key distribution (QKD) uses quantum mechanics to guarantee secure communication. It enables two parties to produce a shared random secret key known only to them, which can then be used to encrypt and decrypt messages. It is often incorrectly called quantum cryptography, as it is the best-known example of a quantum cryptographic task. An important and unique property of quantum key distribution is the ability of the two communicating users to detect the presence of any third party trying to gain knowledge of the key. This results from a fundamental aspect of quantum mechanics: the process of measuring a quantum system in general disturbs the system. A third party trying to eavesdrop on the key must in some way measure it, thus introducing detectable anomalies. By using quantum superpositions or quantum entanglement and transmitting information in quantum states, a communication system can be implemented that detects eavesdropping. If the level of eavesdropping is below a certain threshold, a key can be produced that is guaranteed to be secure (i.e. the eavesdropper has no information about it), otherwise no secure key is possible and communication is aborted. The security of encryption that uses quantum key distribution relies on the foundations of quantum mechanics, in contrast to traditional public key cryptography, which relies on the computational difficulty of certain mathematical functions, and cannot provide any mathematical proof as to the actual complexity of reversing the one-way functions used. QKD has provable security based on information theory, and forward secrecy. Quantum key distribution is only used to produce and distribute a key, not to transmit any message data. This key can then be used with any chosen encryption algorithm to encrypt (and decrypt) a message, which can then be transmitted over a standard communication channel. The algorithm most commonly associated with QKD is the one-time pad, as it is provably secure when used with a secret, random key. In real-world situations, it is often also used with encryption using symmetric key algorithms like the Advanced Encryption Standard algorithm.
Views: 91 The Audiopedia
Bi-Deniable Public-Key Encryption
 
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Talk at crypto 2011. Authors: Chris Peikert, Brent Waters, Adam O'Neill. See http://www.iacr.org/cryptodb/data/paper.php?pubkey=23594
Views: 810 TheIACR
Post-Quantum Zero-Knowledge and Signatures from Symmetric-Key
 
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We propose a new class of post-quantum digital signature schemes that: (a) derive their security entirely from the security of symmetric-key primitives, believed to be quantum-secure, and (b) have extremely small keypairs, and, (c) are highly parametrizable. In our signature constructions, the public key is an image y=f(x) of a one-way function f and secret key x. A signature is a non-interactive zero-knowledge proof of x, that incorporates a message to be signed. For this proof, we leverage recent progress of Giacomelli et al. (USENIX'16) in constructing an efficient sigma protocol for statements over general circuits. We improve this sigma protocol to reduce proof sizes by a factor of two, at no additional computational cost. While this is of independent interest as it yields more compact proofs for any circuit, it also decreases our signature sizes. We consider two possibilities for making the proof non-interactive, the Fiat-Shamir transform, and Unruh's transform (EUROCRYPT'12,'15,'16). The former has smaller signatures, while the latter has a security analysis in the quantum-accessible random oracle model. By customizing Unruh's transform to our application, the overhead is reduced to 1.6x when compared to the Fiat-Shamir transform, which does not have a rigorous post-quantum security analysis. We implement and benchmark both approaches and explore the possible choice of f, taking advantage of the recent trend to strive for practical symmetric ciphers with a particularly low number of multiplications and end up using LowMC. This is joint work with Melissa Chase, David Derler, Steven Goldfeder, Claudio Orlandi, Christian Rechberger, Daniel Slamanig and Greg Zaverucha.  See more on this video at https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/video/post-quantum-zero-knowledge-and-signatures-from-symmetric-key/
Views: 875 Microsoft Research
quantum cryptography data - a quantum leap for data security - how quantum encryption works
 
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Quantum cryptography explained.In this video joshua bienfang of nist talks about the quantum cryptographic system that operates over a 1. The best known example of quantum cryptography is quantum key distribution which offers an information-theoretically secure solution to the key exchange problem. In quantum cryptography data travels in the form of photons through optical channel or wireless channel, there is always a possibility of change in polarization in photon. Bienfang is a physicist in the electron and optical physics division at nist where he works on quantum cryptography... Post quantum cryptography - cryptographic challenge. Course 2 basic cryptography and programming with crypto api: . Post-quantum cryptography deep dive. Advances in quantum cryptography for free-space communications. Information about Quantum cryptography data. Advances in quantum cryptography for free-space communications. Companies that manufacture quantum cryptography systems include magiq technologies inc.What does quantum cryptography mean? Quantum cryptography, animated. Post-quantum cryptography (sometimes referred to as quantum-proof, quantum-safe or quantum-resistant) refers to cryptographic algorithms (usually public-key algorithms) that are thought to be secure against an attack by a quantum What does QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY mean. What does quantum cryptography mean? Advances in quantum cryptography for free-space communications.The advantage of quantum cryptography lies in the fact that it allows the completion of various cryptographic tasks that are proven or conjectured to be impossible using only classical (i.Quantum cryptography meaning - quantum cryptography definition - quantum cryptography explanation...Random rotations of the polarization by both parties (usually called alice and bob) have been proposed in kak's three-stage quantum cryptography protocol.
Quantum Resistant Encryption | TechSNAP 374
 
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Good progress is being made on post-quantum resilient computing. We’ll explain how they’re achieving it, the risks facing traditional cryptography. Plus how bad defaults led to the theft of military Drone docs, new attacks against LTE networks, more! Chapters: 00:00:39 Hackers Steal Military Docs 00:05:35 Year-Old Critical Vulnerabilities Patched in ISP Broadband Gear 00:07:55 Timehop Breach 00:11:43 LTE Attacks 00:17:53 New Nintendo Switch Hardware 00:21:04 Sponsor: DigitalOcean https://do.co/snap 00:22:57 Sponsor: iXsystems https://ixsystems.com/techsnap 00:24:36 Sponsor: Ting https://techsnap.ting.com 00:26:57 Quantum Computing 00:40:02 Feedback Show Notes & Download: http://techsnap.systems/374 Support Jupiter Broadcasting on Patreon ------------- http://bit.ly/jbsignal --- Jupiter Broadcasting Shows --- Ask Noah ------------------------ http://podcast.asknoahshow.com/ Coder Radio -------------------- http://coder.show/ Linux Action News ---------- http://linuxactionnews.com Linux Unplugged ------------- http://linuxunplugged.com/ BSD Now ------------------------- http://bit.ly/bsdnow Unfilter ---------------------------- http://unfilter.show/ Tech Talk Today ------------- http://techtalk.today TechSNAP ----------------------- http://techsnap.systems User Error ------------------------ http://bit.ly/usererror --- Social Media --- Youtube ------------------- http://bit.ly/jupiteryoutube Twitter --------------------- http://bit.ly/jupitertwitter Facebook ----------------- http://bit.ly/jupiterfacebook Instagram ---------------- http://bit.ly/jupiterinstagram G+ --------------------------- http://bit.ly/jbgplus Reddit --------------------- http://bit.ly/jbreddit --- Support --- Patreon ------------------- http://bit.ly/jbsignal Patreon ------------------- http://bit.ly/jbunfilter Paypal --------------------- http://bit.ly/jupiterpaypal JB Stickers -------------- http://bit.ly/jbstickers • Jupiter Broadcasting © 2018 •
How to Break Cryptography | Infinite Series
 
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Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: https://to.pbs.org/donateinfi Only 4 steps stand between you and the secrets hidden behind RSA cryptography. Find out how to crack the world’s most commonly used form of encryption. Tweet at us! @pbsinfinite Facebook: facebook.com/pbsinfinite series Email us! pbsinfiniteseries [at] gmail [dot] com Previous Episode: Can We Combine pi & e into a Rational Number? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bG7cCXqcJag&t=25s Links to other resources: Shor's paper: https://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/9508027v2 Lecture on Shor's Algorithm: https://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0010034.pdf Blog on Shor's algorithm: http://www.scottaaronson.com/blog/?p=208 Video on RSA cryptography: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wXB-V_Keiu8 Another video on RSA cryptography: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4zahvcJ9glg Euler's Big Idea: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euler%27s_theorem (I can find a non-wiki article, but I don't actually use this in the video. It's just where to learn more about the relevant math Euler did.) Written and Hosted by Kelsey Houston-Edwards Produced by Rusty Ward Graphics by Ray Lux Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Challenge Winner - Reddles37 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bG7cCXqcJag&lc=z135cnmgxlbwch1ds233sbzgaojkivaz004 Comments answered by Kelsey: Joel David Hamkins https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bG7cCXqcJag&lc=z13zdpcwyk2ofhugh04cdh4agsr2whmbsmk0k PCreeper394 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bG7cCXqcJag&lc=z135w324kw21j1qi104cdzvrpoixslmq1jw
Views: 174647 PBS Infinite Series
Fang Song - A Note on Quantum Security for Post-Quantum Cryptography
 
25:55
IQC member Fang Song presented a talk titled: A Note on Quantum Security for Post-Quantum Cryptography at the 2014 PQCrypto conference in October, 2014. Abstract: Shor's quantum factoring algorithm and a few other efficient quantum algorithms break many classical crypto-systems. In response, people proposed post-quantum cryptography based on computational problems that are believed hard even for quantum computers. However, security of these schemes against quantum attacks is elusive. This is because existing security analysis (almost) only deals with classical attackers and arguing security in the presence of quantum adversaries is challenging due to unique quantum features such as no-cloning. This work proposes a general framework to study which classical security proofs can be restored in the quantum setting. Basically, we split a security proof into (a sequence of) classical security reductions, and investigate what security reductions are "quantum-friendly". We characterize sufficient conditions such that a classical reductions can be "lifted" to the quantum setting. We then apply our lifting theorems to post-quantum signature schemes. We are able to show that the classical generic construction of hash-tree based signatures from one-way functions that are resistant to efficient quantum inversion algorithms, there exists a quantum-secure signature scheme. We note that the scheme in [10] is a promising (post-quantum) candidate to be implemented in practice and our result further justifies it. Actually, to obtain these results, we formalize a simple criteria, which is motivated by many classical proofs in the literature and is straight-forward to check. This makes our lifting theorem easier to apply, and it should be useful elsewhere to prove quantum security of proposed post-quantum cryptographic schemes. Finally we demonstrate the generality of our framework by showing that several existing works (Full-Domain hash in the quantum random-oracle model [47] and the simple hybrid arguments framework in [23]) can be reformulated under our unified framework. PQCrypto 2014 Book: http://www.springer.com/computer/security+and+cryptology/book/978-3-319-11658-7 Workshop: https://pqcrypto2014.uwaterloo.ca/ Find out more about IQC! Website - https://uwaterloo.ca/institute-for-qu... Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/QuantumIQC Twitter - https://twitter.com/QuantumIQC
quantum cryptography definition - quantum cryptography demonstration
 
01:01
Cryptography Seminar Topics,quantum cryptography ppt, quantum cryptography seminar report, quantum cryptography definition,. This talk introduces quantum cryptography and describes the speaker's experience creating several types of quantum cryptography equipment within the broader context of mainstream cryptography and secure communications... Home Security Cryptography What is Quantum Cryptography. This interdisciplinary course is an introduction to the exciting field of quantum cryptography developed in collaboration between qutech at delft university of technology and the california institute of technology...Random rotations of the polarization by both parties (usually called alice and bob) have been proposed in kak's three-stage quantum cryptography protocol. This talk introduces quantum cryptography and describes the speaker's experience creating several types of quantum cryptography equipment within the broader context of mainstream cryptography and secure communications... - be familiar with modern quantum cryptography – beyond quantum key distribution... Quantum cryptography meaning - quantum cryptography definition - quantum cryptography explanation... What does quantum cryptography mean? Quantum cryptography lecture by chip elliott. Thus post-quantum symmetric cryptography does not need to differ significantly from current symmetric cryptography.Post-quantum cryptography (sometimes referred to as quantum-proof, quantum-safe or quantum-resistant) refers to cryptographic algorithms (usually public-key algorithms) that are thought to be secure against an attack by a quantum What does POST-QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY mean. This work has gained greater attention from academics and industry through the pqcrypto conference series since 2006 and more recently by several workshops on quantum safe cryptography hosted by the european telecommunications standards institute (etsi) and the institute for quantum computing... Quantum cryptography explained. What does quantum cryptography mean? The best known example of quantum cryptography is quantum key distribution which offers an information-theoretically secure solution to the key exchange problem.Quantum cryptography definition, meaning, English dictionary, synonym, see also 'quantum chromodynamics',quantum efficiency',quantum electrodynamics',quantum electronics', Reverso dictionary, English definition, English vocabulary. - the basics of device-independent quantum cryptography. Har 2009 -quantum cryptography an introduction. The advantage of quantum cryptography lies in the fact that it allows the completion of various cryptographic tasks that are proven or conjectured to be impossible using only classical (i. Quantum cryptography demonstration. 1 Quantum Cryptography Definition:Encryption or key exchange technologies that are based on quantum physics principles. Com® WikiAnswers® Categories Technology Computers Computer Programming What is quantum cryptography.
The one-time pad | Journey into cryptography | Computer Science | Khan Academy
 
02:56
The perfect cipher Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/computing/computer-science/cryptography/crypt/v/frequency-stability?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=computerscience Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/computing/computer-science/cryptography/crypt/v/polyalphabetic-cipher?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=computerscience Computer Science on Khan Academy: Learn select topics from computer science - algorithms (how we solve common problems in computer science and measure the efficiency of our solutions), cryptography (how we protect secret information), and information theory (how we encode and compress information). About Khan Academy: Khan Academy is a nonprofit with a mission to provide a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere. We believe learners of all ages should have unlimited access to free educational content they can master at their own pace. We use intelligent software, deep data analytics and intuitive user interfaces to help students and teachers around the world. Our resources cover preschool through early college education, including math, biology, chemistry, physics, economics, finance, history, grammar and more. We offer free personalized SAT test prep in partnership with the test developer, the College Board. Khan Academy has been translated into dozens of languages, and 100 million people use our platform worldwide every year. For more information, visit www.khanacademy.org, join us on Facebook or follow us on Twitter at @khanacademy. And remember, you can learn anything. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Computer Science channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC8uHgAVBOy5h1fDsjQghWCw?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Views: 415261 Khan Academy
One Time Pad - Applied Cryptography
 
03:44
This video is part of an online course, Applied Cryptography. Check out the course here: https://www.udacity.com/course/cs387.
Views: 38742 Udacity
Quantum Computing 'Magic' - Computerphile
 
09:50
Quantum Computing offers a potential sea-change in computer power, but what are the issues with it, why aren't we all using quantum iphones already? Associate Professor Dr Thorsten Altenkirch. Link to more information & Quantum IO Monad Code: http://bit.ly/Computerphile_QIOMonad *From Thorsten: "We have updated the hackage package to work with the new monad library. If you want to play with QIO read the paper and download the code and then you can start quantum programming. :-)" Public Key Cryptography: https://youtu.be/GSIDS_lvRv4 Cracking Windows by Atom Bombing: https://youtu.be/rRxuh9fp7QI Slow Loris Attack: https://youtu.be/XiFkyR35v2Y Google Deep Dream: https://youtu.be/BsSmBPmPeYQ http://www.facebook.com/computerphile https://twitter.com/computer_phile This video was filmed and edited by Sean Riley. Computer Science at the University of Nottingham: http://bit.ly/nottscomputer Computerphile is a sister project to Brady Haran's Numberphile. More at http://www.bradyharan.com
Views: 215977 Computerphile
Post-Quantum Key Exchange for the TLS Protocol from the Ring Learning with Errors Problem
 
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Post-Quantum Key Exchange for the TLS Protocol from the Ring Learning with Errors Problem Douglas Stebila Presented at the 2015 IEEE Symposium on Security & Privacy May 18--20, 2015 San Jose, CA http://www.ieee-security.org/TC/SP2015/ ABSTRACT Lattice-based cryptographic primitives are believed to offer resilience against attacks by quantum computers. We demonstrate the practicality of post-quantum key exchange by constructing cipher suites for the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol that provide key exchange based on the ring learning with errors (R-LWE) problem, we accompany these cipher suites with a rigorous proof of security. Our approach ties lattice-based key exchange together with traditional authentication using RSA or elliptic curve digital signatures: the post-quantum key exchange provides forward secrecy against future quantum attackers, while authentication can be provided using RSA keys that are issued by today's commercial certificate authorities, smoothing the path to adoption. Our cryptographically secure implementation, aimed at the 128-bit security level, reveals that the performance price when switching from non-quantum-safe key exchange is not too high. With our R-LWE cipher suites integrated into the Open SSL library and using the Apache web server on a 2-core desktop computer, we could serve 506 RLWE-ECDSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256 HTTPS connections per second for a 10 KiB payload. Compared to elliptic curve Diffie-Hellman, this means an 8 KiB increased handshake size and a reduction in throughput of only 21%. This demonstrates that provably secure post-quantum key-exchange can already be considered practical.
Protocols - Applied Cryptography
 
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This video is part of an online course, Applied Cryptography. Check out the course here: https://www.udacity.com/course/cs387.
Views: 2089 Udacity
This Video was Not Encrypted with RSA | Infinite Series
 
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Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: https://to.pbs.org/donateinfi Learn through active problem-solving at Brilliant: https://brilliant.org/InfiniteSeries/ Last episode we discussed Symmetric cryptography https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NOs34_-eREk Here we break down Asymmetric crypto and more. Tweet at us! @pbsinfinite Facebook: facebook.com/pbsinfinite series Email us! pbsinfiniteseries [at] gmail [dot] com Previous Episode (Almost) Unbreakable Crypto | Infinite Series https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NOs34_-eREk How To Break Cryptography https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=12Q3Mrh03Gk&list=PLa6IE8XPP_gnot4uwqn7BeRJoZcaEsG1D&index=2 Last time, we discussed symmetric encryption protocols, which rely on a user-supplied number called "the key" to drive an algorithm that scrambles messages. Since anything encrypted with a given key can only be decrypted with the same key, Alice and Bob can exchange secure messages once they agree on a key. But what if Alice and Bob are strangers who can only communicate over a channel monitored by eavesdroppers like Eve? How do they agree on a secret key in the first place? Written and Hosted by Gabe Perez-Giz Produced by Rusty Ward Graphics by Ray Lux Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow and Meah Denee Barrington Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Thanks to Matthew O'Connor and Yana Chernobilsky who are supporting us on Patreon at the Identity level! And thanks to Nicholas Rose and Mauricio Pacheco who are supporting us at the Lemma level!
Views: 54531 PBS Infinite Series
Factoring Is Still Hard - Applied Cryptography
 
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This video is part of an online course, Applied Cryptography. Check out the course here: https://www.udacity.com/course/cs387.
Views: 5910 Udacity
AES: Advanced Encryption Standard - a Conceptual Review
 
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AES has swept away old faithful DES, and is now the workhorse of business and government cryptography. Our entire civil order relies on its integrity. Here we explain how it works, and discover how a string of simple crypto primitives combine to such a robust cipher for which no mathematical compromise was ever published.
Views: 116658 Gideon Samid
RSA-129 - Numberphile
 
09:40
The large number "RSA-129" posed a challenge experts said would take 40 quadrillion years to solve - but took 17. Featuring Ron Rivest, co-inventor of RSA... More links below... Our original RSA video (how it all works): https://youtu.be/M7kEpw1tn50 More from Ron from this interview (quantum computing): https://youtu.be/tX7e7CgWrvM More Ron Rivest on Numberphile: http://bit.ly/RonRivest Ron Rivest's own website: https://people.csail.mit.edu/rivest/ Public Key Cryptography on our sister channel, Computerphile: https://youtu.be/GSIDS_lvRv4 RSA-129: 114381625757888867669235779976146612010218296721242362562561842935706935245733897830597123563958705058989075147599290026879543541 Numberphile is supported by the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute (MSRI): http://bit.ly/MSRINumberphile We are also supported by Science Sandbox, a Simons Foundation initiative dedicated to engaging everyone with the process of science. NUMBERPHILE Website: http://www.numberphile.com/ Numberphile on Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/numberphile Numberphile tweets: https://twitter.com/numberphile Subscribe: http://bit.ly/Numberphile_Sub Videos by Brady Haran Patreon: http://www.patreon.com/numberphile Brady's videos subreddit: http://www.reddit.com/r/BradyHaran/ Brady's latest videos across all channels: http://www.bradyharanblog.com/ Sign up for (occasional) emails: http://eepurl.com/YdjL9
Views: 385818 Numberphile
Quantum computing and encryption
 
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The effect of quantum computing on digital encryption explained in simple terms.
Views: 59 Cory Phipps
The Mathematics of Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange | Infinite Series
 
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Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: https://to.pbs.org/donateinfi Symmetric keys are essential to encrypting messages. How can two people share the same key without someone else getting a hold of it? Upfront asymmetric encryption is one way, but another is Diffie-Hellman key exchange. This is part 3 in our Cryptography 101 series. Check out the playlist here for parts 1 & 2: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NOs34_-eREk&list=PLa6IE8XPP_gmVt-Q4ldHi56mYsBuOg2Qw Tweet at us! @pbsinfinite Facebook: facebook.com/pbsinfinite series Email us! pbsinfiniteseries [at] gmail [dot] com Previous Episode Topology vs. “a” Topology https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tdOaMOcxY7U&t=13s Symmetric single-key encryption schemes have become the workhorses of secure communication for a good reason. They’re fast and practically bulletproof… once two parties like Alice and Bob have a single shared key in hand. And that’s the challenge -- they can’t use symmetric key encryption to share the original symmetric key, so how do they get started? Written and Hosted by Gabe Perez-Giz Produced by Rusty Ward Graphics by Ray Lux Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow and Meah Denee Barrington Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Thanks to Matthew O'Connor, Yana Chernobilsky, and John Hoffman who are supporting us on Patreon at the Identity level! And thanks to Nicholas Rose, Jason Hise, Thomas Scheer, Marting Sergio H. Faester, CSS, and Mauricio Pacheco who are supporting us at the Lemma level!
Views: 45313 PBS Infinite Series
Coins - Why these 5 Quantum Resistant Cryptos will be the coins to watch in 2018
 
05:04
Classical Computers - Perform computations in binary, 1 or 0 - Run by transistors - Computer becomes twice as powerful for every new transistor added - Run all our cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin and Ethereum Quantum Computers - Perform computations in qubits, 1 AND 0 - Compute exponentially faster than classical computers - Able to break modern encryption, used in cryptocurrencies Multiverse Computation - Quantum Computer exists in all universes simultaneously - Solves all problems simultaneously, rather than in linear time Elliptic Curve Crypto - Runs all modern blockchains - May be defeated by Quantum Computer via Shor's Algorithm Current Progress - QCs were on show at CES 2018 - Google now has a 72 Qubit Machine, called Bristlecone - Microsoft also working on QCs for Public and Business use - NSA is transitioning US-Govt away from traditional encryption schemes Stronger Keys - Increasing private and public key length can protect against Shor's Algorithm Stronger Hashes - Increase hash length can protect against Grover's Algorithm Dynamic Keys - Have cryptocurrency reassign new keys everytime a transaction is sent - Makes QC bruteforcing the private key useless, as funds would have moved to new address Nexus (NXS) - Uses 571 bit private keys - 1024 bit Skein and Keccak hashes - Signature chain obscures your keys - Launching staking nodes to low-earth-orbit, Vector Space Systems Quantum Resistant Ledger (QRL) - Mainnet launch in Q3 - Implements XMSS (extended Merkle signature scheme), peer-reviewed post-quantum algorithm - Ledger Nano support upon mainnet launch Shield (XSH) - Multialgorithm PoW coin - PoS to come in Q3 of 2018 - Roadmap for post-quantum signatures such as BLISS or WINTERNITZ in Q4 2018 - Development consistently ahead of schedule - No premine Mochimo (CHI) - Community driven effort to beat Google's Quantum Computers before its too late - Information is limited, however developers contactable on Slack - Has a premine HCash (HSR) - Implementing BLISS signatures - New version of BLISS, more resistant to side-channel, 51% attacks, faster Bitcoin (BTC) - Signature and Hashing algorithms can be switched out (forked) to resist Quantum Computers Ethereum (ETH) - EIP 86 proposed that users should be able to choose any digital signature algorithm, including post-quantum ones *This video is not investment advice, please DYOR before investing any money in the cryptocurrency markets. Investing carries a high amount of financial risk, and may not be suitable for everyone* ===== For More Information: - Like & subscribe to this channel! - Join our Facebook,: http://fb.com/groups/cryptocircle - Download Presentation: http://bit.do/ego2N
Views: 322 CryptoCircle
IOHK | Developing a secure proof of stake algorithm
 
02:46
Prof Aggelos Kiayias is the Chair in Cyber Security and Privacy at the University of Edinburgh. His research interests are in computer security, information security, applied cryptography and foundations of cryptography with a particular emphasis in blockchain technologies and distributed systems, e-voting and secure multiparty protocols as well as privacy and identity management. https://iohk.io/team/aggelos-kiayias/ Developing a secure proof of stake algorithm is one of the big challenges in cryptocurrency, and a proposed solution to this problem won the attention of the academic community. Several hundred cryptographers from around the world arrived at the University of California Santa Barbara on Sunday for the flagship annual event of their field, Crypto 2017. Over several days, they present cutting edge research for the scrutiny of their peers, while in the evenings they continue discussions with friends and colleagues over dinner on the university campus, with the inspiring backdrop of the Santa Ynez mountains meeting the Pacific ocean behind them. https://iohk.io/press/ Ouroboros, developed by a team led by IOHK chief scientist Aggelos Kiayias, made it through a tough admission process for the prestigious conference. This year, 311 papers were submitted and of those 72 were accepted. Only three papers at the conference were on the subject of blockchain. All three papers were supported by IOHK funding. Speaking after his presentation, Professor Kiayias said: “We’re very happy that we had the opportunity to present Ouroboros at the conference. The protocol and especially its security analysis were very well received by fellow cryptographers.” “Our next steps will be to focus on the next version of the protocol, Ouroboros Praos which improves even further the security and performance characteristics of the protocol.” The Ouroboros protocol stands out as the first proof of stake algorithm that is provably secure, meaning that it offers security guarantees that are mathematically proven. This is essential for a protocol that is intended to be used in cryptocurrency, an infrastructure that must be relied on to carry billions of dollars worth of value. In addition to security, if blockchains are going to become infrastructure for new financial systems they must be able to comfortably handle millions of users. The key to scaling up is proof of stake, a far more energy efficient and cost effective algorithm, and as such this research represents a significant step forward in cryptography. Ouroboros also has the distinction of being implemented – the protocol will be an integral part of Cardano, a blockchain system currently in development. https://iohk.io/research/papers/#XJ6MHFXX https://iohk.io/projects/cardano/ There were two other papers presented at the bitcoin session on Monday. The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol with Chains of Variable Difficulty, was produced by a team of three researchers and included Prof Kiayias. It is a continuation of previous research into Bitcoin, which was itself the first work to prove security properties of its blockchain. A third paper on the subject of bitcoin was presented, Bitcoin as a Transaction Ledger: A Composable Treatment. Other notable talks at the conference included a presentation by John Martinis, an expert on quantum computing and former physics professor at the University of California Santa Barbara, who is now working at Google to build a quantum computer. Leading cryptographers at the conference included Whitfield Diffie, pioneer of the public key cryptography that made Bitcoin possible, and Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman, who came up with the RSA public-key cryptosystem that is widely used for secure data transmission. https://www.forbes.com/sites/amycastor/2017/08/23/at-crypto-2017-blockchain-presentations-focus-on-proofs-not-concepts/#6e558d1a7b70 https://iohk.io/team/aggelos-kiayias/ https://iohk.io/team/bernardo-david/ https://iohk.io/team/peter-gazi/ -- Input Output See more at: https://iohk.io Get our latest news updates: https://iohk.io/blog/ Meet the team: https://iohk.io/team/ Learn about our projects: https://iohk.io/projects/cardano/ Read our papers: http://iohk.link/paper-ouroboros Visit our library: https://iohk.io/research/library/ In the press: https://iohk.io/press/ Work with us: https://iohk.io/careers/ See more on Cardano: https://iohk.io/projects/cardano/ --
Views: 1350 IOHK
Destroy All Crypto -- Nick Gonella
 
33:44
White Hat CTF Master Nick Gonella gives a high-level mathematical look at Quantum Cryptography. Nick starts with the idea of using Asymmetric Encryption to solve the codebook problem of Symmetric Encryption. Nick also dives into Quantum concepts like superposition of states, duality, and the issues that RSA presents when confronted with Shor's algorithm and techniques from Number Theory. Watch Nick's talk to see how the mathematics surrounding this topic surpasses the computational capabilities of current computers. What is Elliptic Curve Cryptography? See Nick's talk on ECC: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FyrNkMDL120
Views: 714 White Hat Cal Poly
11. RSA Summary and Examples || Open SSL
 
01:07:28
Proof that RSA encrypt/decrypt works; public key crypto for authentication; OpenSSL examples of RSA. Credit: Prof. Steven Gordon
Views: 47 Pritesh Prajapati
DEF CON 23 -  Jean Philippe Aumasson - Quantum Computers vs Computers Security
 
32:16
We've heard about hypothetical quantum computers breaking most of the public-key crypto in use—RSA, elliptic curves, etc.—and we've heard about "post-quantum" systems that resist quantum computers. We also heard about quantum computers' potential to solve other problems considerably faster than classical computers, such as discrete optimization, machine learning, or code verification problems. And we heard about a commercial quantum computer, and we heard vendors of quantum key distribution or quantum random number generators promise us security as solid as the laws of physics. Still, most of us are clueless regarding: How quantum computers work and why they could solve certain problems faster than classical computers? What are the actual facts and what is FUD, hype, or journalistic exaggeration? Could quantum computers help in defending classical computers and networks against intrusions? Is it worth spending money in post-quantum systems, quantum key distribution, or in purchasing or developing of a quantum computer? Will usable quantum computers be built in the foreseeable future? This talk gives honest answers to those questions, based on the latest research, on analyses of the researchers' and vendors' claims, and on a cost-benefit-risk analyses. We'll expose the fundamental principles of quantum computing in a way comprehensible by anyone, and we'll skip the technical details that require math and physics knowledge. Yet after this talk you'll best be able to assess the risk of quantum computers, to debunk misleading claims, and to ask the right questions. Speaker Bio: Jean-Philippe (JP) Aumasson is Principal Cryptographer at Kudelski Security, in Switzerland. He is known for designing the cryptographic functions BLAKE, BLAKE2, SipHash, and NORX. He has spoken at conferences such as Black Hat, RSA, and CCC, and initiated the Crypto Coding Standard and the Password Hashing Competition projects. He co-wrote the 2015 book "The Hash Function BLAKE". He is member of the technical advisory board of the Open Crypto Audit Project and of the Underhanded Crypto Contest. JP tweets as @veorq. Twitter: @veorq
Views: 4116 DEFCONConference
Ouroboros | IACR Crypto-2017
 
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Filmed on location at Crypto 2017, the 37th International Cryptology Conference. The event was held at the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) August 20-24 2017. The academic program covers all aspects of cryptology. The conference is sponsored by the International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR), in cooperation with the Computer Science Department of UCSB. https://www.iacr.org/conferences/crypto2017/ Developing a secure proof of stake algorithm is one of the big challenges in cryptocurrency, and a proposed solution to this problem won the attention of the academic community. Several hundred cryptographers from around the world arrived at the University of California Santa Barbara on Sunday for the flagship annual event of their field, Crypto 2017. Over several days, they present cutting edge research for the scrutiny of their peers, while in the evenings they continue discussions with friends and colleagues over dinner on the university campus, with the inspiring backdrop of the Santa Ynez mountains meeting the Pacific ocean behind them. https://iohk.io/press/ Ouroboros, developed by a team led by IOHK chief scientist Aggelos Kiayias, made it through a tough admission process for the prestigious conference. This year, 311 papers were submitted and of those 72 were accepted. Only three papers at the conference were on the subject of blockchain. All three papers were supported by IOHK funding. Speaking after his presentation, Professor Kiayias said: “We’re very happy that we had the opportunity to present Ouroboros at the conference. The protocol and especially its security analysis were very well received by fellow cryptographers.” “Our next steps will be to focus on the next version of the protocol, Ouroboros Praos which improves even further the security and performance characteristics of the protocol.” The Ouroboros protocol stands out as the first proof of stake algorithm that is provably secure, meaning that it offers security guarantees that are mathematically proven. This is essential for a protocol that is intended to be used in cryptocurrency, an infrastructure that must be relied on to carry billions of dollars worth of value. In addition to security, if blockchains are going to become infrastructure for new financial systems they must be able to comfortably handle millions of users. The key to scaling up is proof of stake, a far more energy efficient and cost effective algorithm, and as such this research represents a significant step forward in cryptography. Ouroboros also has the distinction of being implemented – the protocol will be an integral part of Cardano, a blockchain system currently in development. https://iohk.io/research/papers/#XJ6MHFXX https://iohk.io/projects/cardano/ There were two other papers presented at the bitcoin session on Monday. The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol with Chains of Variable Difficulty, was produced by a team of three researchers and included Prof Kiayias. It is a continuation of previous research into Bitcoin, which was itself the first work to prove security properties of its blockchain. A third paper on the subject of bitcoin was presented, Bitcoin as a Transaction Ledger: A Composable Treatment. Other notable talks at the conference included a presentation by John Martinis, an expert on quantum computing and former physics professor at the University of California Santa Barbara, who is now working at Google to build a quantum computer. Leading cryptographers at the conference included Whitfield Diffie, pioneer of the public key cryptography that made Bitcoin possible, and Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman, who came up with the RSA public-key cryptosystem that is widely used for secure data transmission. https://www.forbes.com/sites/amycastor/2017/08/23/at-crypto-2017-blockchain-presentations-focus-on-proofs-not-concepts/#6e558d1a7b70 https://iohk.io/team/aggelos-kiayias/ https://iohk.io/team/bernardo-david/ https://iohk.io/team/peter-gazi/ -- Input Output See more at: https://iohk.io Get our latest news updates: https://iohk.io/blog/ Meet the team: https://iohk.io/team/ Learn about our projects: https://iohk.io/projects/cardano/ Read our papers: http://iohk.link/paper-ouroboros Visit our library: https://iohk.io/research/library/ In the press: https://iohk.io/press/ Work with us: https://iohk.io/careers/ See more on Cardano: https://iohk.io/projects/cardano/ --
Views: 1566 IOHK
Introduction to the Post-Quantum Supersingular Isogeny Diffie-Hellman Protocol
 
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A talk given at the University of Waterloo on July 12th, 2016. The intended audience was mathematics students without necessarily any prior background in cryptography or elliptic curves. Apologies for the poor audio quality. Use subtitles if you can't hear.
Views: 1803 David Urbanik
Recover RSA private key from public keys - rhme2 Key Server (crypto 200)
 
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Using the greatest common divisor (GCD) to factorize the public modulo into the secret primes, so we can forge a RSA signature. Source for the rhme2 challenges: https://github.com/Riscure/Rhme-2016 -------------------------------------- Twitter: https://twitter.com/LiveOverflow Website: http://liveoverflow.com/ Subreddit: https://www.reddit.com/r/LiveOverflow/
Views: 32073 LiveOverflow
How do two parties exchange keys to communicate securely?
 
04:47
While asymmetric (public-key) encryption does allow two parties to communicate security without exchanging keys, asymmetric encryption requires expensive computation for each message. Symmetric key algorithms are much more efficient. As a result, the two techniques are usually applied to establish and maintain a secure connection. Asymmetric encryption is used to protect the initial part of the connection where symmetric keys are exchanged. Once communicating parties agree on symmetric keys, symmetric encryption is used for the remainder of the communication. Credits: Talking: Geoffrey Challen (Assistant Professor, Computer Science and Engineering, University at Buffalo). Producing: Greg Bunyea (Undergraduate, Computer Science and Engineering, University at Buffalo). Part of the https://www.internet-class.org online internet course. A blue Systems Research Group (https://blue.cse.buffalo.edu) production.
Views: 229 internet-class
Diffie-Hellman: The Math (simplified)
 
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Another lesson from Prof. Gideon Crypto Academy: a brief, yet precise explanation of the mathematical procedure developed by Diffie and Hellman to allow for two strangers on the Internet to establish a confidential channel of communication. Visit the academy at: WeSecure.net/learn.
Views: 16343 Gideon Samid
Christian Schaffner: Quantum Cryptography
 
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I will entertain the audience with a science talk about quantum cryptography, covering both some classics (Quantum Key Distribution) and the latest developments (position-based quantum cryptography) in this fascinating research field. [No previous knowledge of quantum mechanics is required to follow the talk.] Christian Schaffner
Views: 1489 media.ccc.de
22. Cryptography: Encryption
 
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MIT 6.046J Design and Analysis of Algorithms, Spring 2015 View the complete course: http://ocw.mit.edu/6-046JS15 Instructor: Srinivas Devadas In this lecture, Professor Devadas continues with cryptography, introducing encryption methods. License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA More information at http://ocw.mit.edu/terms More courses at http://ocw.mit.edu
Views: 15035 MIT OpenCourseWare